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Presence and Reality Making Media Experiences Conceptually Real by Getting Beyond Sense Perceptions
Michael A. ShapiroCornell University With the help of: T. Makana Chock, Indiana University Claudia Barriga, Cornell Jorge Peña-Herborn, Cornell Jeffrey T. Hancock, Cornell Norman Porticella, Cornell Courtney Erin Silver, Cornell
What is presence?According to ISPR • Part or all of the individual's perception fails to accurately acknowledge the role of technology in an experience. • at *some level* and to *some degree*, her/his perceptions overlook that knowledge and objects, events, entities, and environments are perceived as if the technology was not involved in the experience. • "Social realism" when a person's perception fails to accurately acknowledge the role of technology that makes it appear that s/he is in a physical location and environment in which the social characteristics correspond to those of the physical world
There is little reference to other aspects of mental processing. • There is no reference to knowledge about the world except for perceptual knowledge. • There is no reference to inference processes or mental constructs. • There is no reference to the ability to understand that appearance often does not represent the true nature of things • There is no reference to imagination
This is equivalent to a novel in which almost all the effort went into describing the setting ignoring what the reader knows, feels and can infer.
Presence occurs during an encounter with technology and not before or after this encounter. Past research on “higher order” processes has focused on “effects of” rather than processing during
Perceived realism as an on-line process • People make judgments about the realism of what they see as they see it • With maturity more and more higher order processes inform this process—along with the perceptual • There is a relationship between this notion of realism and presence. • We suspect the causal direction is primarily from realism to presence • Game players strongly prefer realistic environments
Making it Real • Reality is a characteristic of the message and the perceiver. • Reality is based on thought as much as sensation
For Young Children Sense Perception Realism Higher order mental processes
As you mature Sense Perception Realism Higher order mental processes
Sensory devices can even lead to less realism • Characters with the best aiming skill were judged as unlikely to be human. (Laird & Duchi, 2000). • Haptic features can make you more aware you are playing a game
How something looks doesn’t always represent it’s true nature Children think people who look pretty are nice. Adults include how they act.
The ability to apply knowledge of the physical and social world Real looking dragons frighten small children. Older children know they don’t exist no matter how realistic.
Realism judgments take place at the interface between story elements, mental abilities and individual characteristics Story Elements Mental abilities Individual Characteristics
Social judgments influence realism judgments • People think bad things are more real for other people • When bad things happen to other people they seem more real if given situational information. When good things happen they seem more real if given dispositional information.
If realism leads to presence • Part of realism does not depend on the immediate perceptual experience • Then part of the experience of presence has to do with higher order processes • Understanding these higher order processes is important in designing and understanding immersive environments
Environments that go beyond the sensory • Environments that make sense (within the assumptions of the environment) • Environments that respond to the users logical processes • Environments that call on the users knowledge • Environments where “real” social relationships are formed
To do that we need • Better models of how knowledge, logic, and inference lead to realism • Environments that model these processes • Environment tools that allow researchers to investigate these processes