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Just-in-Time Lecture. Indonesia Earthquake 27 May 2006. Ali Ardalan, Kuntoro. Mission Statement. The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide. Mission Statement.

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Indonesia Earthquake 27 May 2006

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Just-in-Time Lecture

Indonesia Earthquake

27 May 2006

Ali Ardalan, Kuntoro


Mission Statement

  • The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide.

Mission Statement

  • The Global Disaster Health Network is designed to translate the best possible scholarly information to educators worldwide.

What are the Disaster Supercourse & JIT lecture?



What is the Disaster Supercourse?

What is a JIT lecture?


Lecture objectives

  • To provide the best possible scientific

information about the Indonesia

earthquake, 27 May 2006

  • To teach how the science can help

Indonesian to be prepared for primary &

secondary prevention of consequences of



Lecture objectives

  • In this lecture you will find:
  • How the vulnerability conditions can change

a natural hazard to a disaster?


What is the earthquake?

The shaking of earth caused by waves moving on and below the earth's surface and causing: surface faulting, tremors vibration, liquefaction, landslides, aftershocks and/or tsunamis.


How earthquake happens?

  • It caused by a sudden slip on a FAULT.
  • Stresses in the earth's

outer layer push sides of

fault together.

  • Stress builds up & rocks

slips suddenly, releasing

energy in waves that travel

through the earth's CRUST

& cause the shaking that we

Feel during an earthquake.


Earthquake Strength Measures

I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

I) Magnitude:

  • Definition:A measure of actual physical energy release at its source as estimated from instrumental observations.
  • Scale:Richter Scale
          • By Charles Richter, 1936
          • Open-ended scale
          • The oldest & most widely used

Noji 1997


Earthquake Strength Measures

I) Magnitude & II) Intensity

II) Intensity:

  • Definition:a measure of the felt or perceived effects of an earthquake rather than the strength of the earthquake itself.
  • Scale:Modified Mercalli (MM) scale
          • 12-point scale, ranges from barely perceptible earthquakes at MM I to near total destruction at MM XII

Magnitude versus Intensity

  • Magnitude refers to the force of the earthquake as

a whole, while intensity refers to the effects of an

earthquake at a particular site.

  • An earthquake can have just one magnitude, while

intensity is usually strongest close to the epicenter

& is weaker the farther a site is from the epicenter.

  • The intensity of an earthquake is more germane to

its public health consequences than its magnitude.

  • Location: South eastern Asia
  • Extension: 1,913.000 Km2
  • Around 18.000 islands (70% unpopulated)
  • The world's largest archipelago!
  • Bicontinental country: Asia & Australia

Indonesia’s Health Statistics

  • Total population:222,781,000
  • GDP per capita (Intl $, 2004):3,840
  • Life expectancy at birth M/F (years2002):

65,0 / 68,0

  • Healthy life expectancy at birth M/F

(years, 2006):57,4 / 58,9


Indonesia’s Health Statistics

  • Child mortality M/F (per 1000): 41/36
  • Adult mortality M/F (per 1000): 239/200
  • Total health expenditure per capita

(Intl $, 2003): 113

  • Total health expenditure as % of GDP

(2003): 3,1


Indonesia Seismic Plates

Plates movement

  • 6.0 cm per year in the West Java Trench
  • 4.9 cm per year in the East Java Trench
  • 10.7 cm per year in New Guinea

Earthquakes & active faults in



Seismic Hazard Map of Indonesia

Based on Expected Ground Acceleration



Significant earthquake in Indonesia

Significant earthquakes in Indonesia


The largest earthquake in Indonesia

  • Date: Sunday, December 26, 2004
  • Magnitude: 9.0 on the Richter scale
  • Time: 00:58:53 (UTC)
  • Epicentre: 3.316°N, 95.854°E
  • Depth: 30 km (18.6 miles)
  • Death: >220,000


Volcanic activities in Indonesia

  • Indonesia's volcanic activity is among the

Earth's highest!

  • The most famous: Krakatau (Krakatoa),

(between Sumatra

and Java)


Comparison of Average Killed per year due to Earthquakes between Indonesia & other countries, 1980-2000



Indonesia Earthquake, 27 May 2006

  • Time: 5/53/58 Local Time
  • Magnitude: 6.3 on Richter scale
  • Region: Java, Indonesia
  • Geolocation: 7.962°S, 110.458°E
  • Main Affected area:Yogyakarta , Java
  • Depth:10 km (6.2 miles)
  • Epicenter:37 km south of Yogyakarta

455 Km of Jakarta


Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) province

  • People of DIY only were worry about the eruption of

Mount Merapi in the Northern part of City of Yogyakarta,

they had never thought about earthquake over hundred


  • DIY has a special status in Republic of Indonesia,

although in the Province level, the governor is always

the descendant of the King, to honor the culture of



Indonesia Earthquake:

Infrastructure Damage

  • Roads & Bridges: ~ 49 km
  • Destroyed Schools: 269
  • Government Buildings: 302
  • Religious Buildings:18,959
  • Local Markets: 9
  • Destroyed houses: 60,000

Indonesia Earthquake:

Damage to Health Facilities

01 June 2006


Damage to Health Facilities

City of Yogyakarta of Province of DIY

  • 6 Public Health Centers (PHC) & 1 Sub PHC were severely damaged
  • 9 PHCs and 6 Sub PHCs were moderately damaged
  • 3 PHCs and 4 Sub PHCs were mildly damaged.

District of Klaten of Province of Central Java

  • 2 PHCs and 8 Sub PHCs were destroyed
  • 7 PHCs and 25 Sub PHCs were severely damaged
  • 5 PHCs and 20 Sub PHCs were mildly damaged rusak ringan

District of Bantul of Province of DIY

  • 15 PHCs, 1 District Health Office, 30 Sub PHCs and 46 Houses of Officers were severely damaged
  • 4 PHCs, 13 Sub PHCs and 21 Houses of Officers were moderately damaged
  • 7 PHCs, 1 District General Hospital of Bantul, 13 PHCs and 4 Houses of Officers were mildly damaged.

Indonesia Earthquake:

Main Health Impacts

  • Death toll: 4,962 to 6,234
  • Injured: 33,852 to 57,790
  • Hospitalized patients:18,959
  • Displaced/homeless: 200,000- 600,000

Indonesia Earthquake:

Mortality distribution



Indonesia Earthquake:

Health Needs & Concerns

  • Shelters & tents
  • Medical Assistance
  • Lacks of Medical Staff & services
  • Bed sheets, mattresses
  • Clean Water & Food
  • Disease surveillance system

Some key points in relief operation:

  • Emergency Health Information System
  • Importance of right kind of donations (based on
  • right needs assessment)
  • Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Inter and Intra sectoral Coordination

Public Health Consequences of Earthquakes

Pease see the following lectures:

Part I.

Part II.


Indonesia Earthquake:

Economical Damage

  • Only for covering the 6 months relief needs:

103,389,500 US$ (UN Flash Appeal)

How about the recovery & reconstruction of damaged infrastructures?


Indonesia Earthquake

  • Several decades of development wiped out

in seconds in Yogyakarta & Java

  • How many percent of Indonesia GDP has

been lost in the recent earthquake?

  • What do you think about spending this

money on prevention? And absolutely

without loosing the lives and injuries!

30 years continuous evolution in the practice of crisis or disaster management
30 years continuous evolution in the practice of Crisis or Disaster Management
  • Civil defense
  • Emergency assistance
  • Disaster response and relief
  • Humanitarian assistance
  • Emergency management
  • Civil protection
  • Disaster mitigation and prevention
  • Disaster Risk Management

Strategic shift from managing a disastrous event to more preventive and proactive approaches!!

what is disaster risk reduction disaster reduction or drr
What is Disaster risk reduction (disaster reduction or DRR)?
  • The conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development !

DRR Terminology: What is the Hazard?

  • A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
drr terminology what is the vulnerability
DRR Terminology: What is the Vulnerability?
  • The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.
  • Vulnerable Yogyakarta , Java:
    • Unprepared people, society
    • Unprepared institutions
    • Non-resistant building
    • High-density population
    • etc.
what is risk
What is Risk?
  • The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards & vulnerable conditions.
  • Risk = Hazards x Vulnerability
what is a disaster
What is a Disaster ?
  • A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
what is a disaster45
What is a Disaster?
  • A disaster is a function of the risk process.
  • It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.
indonesian earthquake risk model
Indonesian earthquake: Risk model
  • Maybe DIY & Java communities were not able to modify the hazard part of the earthquake risk model, and predict it precisely, BUT they could assess their vulnerability conditions and reduced them!
  • This has been the same experience in Bam & Kashmir!
main lesson learned
Main Lesson Learned

So, an earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale is not equal to a disaster. It is just movement of the earth crust. Our vulnerability has changed it to a disaster!!


Just-in-Time Education

Let’s teach the communities right now !

Risk awareness & Knowledge development including education, training, research and information are of the important fields of action for Disaster Risk Reduction!


Information ….

  • People need information as much as

water, food, medicine or shelter.

  • Information can save lives, livelihoods &


  • Lack of information can make

people victims of disaster.

World Disaster Report 2005 – IFRC/RCS


What we should do/do not before, during & after the earthquake?

Please read carefully at:


We wish to express our warm thanks to GDHNet faculties and all groups that contributed their valuable materials.