Aquaculture Trade. Fahmida Khatun, PhD Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), Bangladesh Presented at the Meeting on Fisheries, Trade and Development Organised by ICTSD Geneva, Switzerland: 16 June 2010. Contents. Introduction Production of Aquaculture Trade in Aquaculture
Fahmida Khatun, PhD
Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), Bangladesh
Presented at the Meeting on
Fisheries, Trade and Development
Organised by ICTSD
Geneva, Switzerland: 16 June 2010
■ It is a source of both male and female employment. Women, in many developing countries, are particularly involved in processing, retailing and local trading;
■ In 2007 China alone generated 62% of the world aquaculture production followed by India, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand;
■ Among the most captured aquatic species, carps alone contributed about 38% of the global catch in 2007, white leg shrimp generated US$ 8.8. billion followed by Atlantic salmon (US$ 7.6 billion);
■ The contribution of aquaculture to the global supply of seafood has increased from 5% in 1970 to about 36% in 2007;
■ Between 2002-2007 aquaculture production grew at average rate of 6.5 % annually.
■ Many countries of the world, particularly the lower and middle income countries, depend on aquaculture not only for their food but also for earning foreign currencies by exporting them. On the other hand, millions of people around these countries depend highly on aquaculture for their survival.
■ Currently, about 80% of the world’s fisheries (including aquatic species) are being fished up to or beyond their biological limits, while in 1978 this was only in case of up to 9% of the world fisheries. It shows how fast these resources are getting extinct.
■ Keeping in mind the need for additional food, specially protein, demands for the overgrowing people of the world as a whole and the developing countries in particular, it is important to stop unsustainable aquaculture practices. The significant trade volumes of aquaculture in developing countries also indicate the importance of this sector.
■ Thus there is need for developing sustainable aquaculture across the world for larger societal benefits.
Figure 1: Various Types of Aquaculture Production by Continent
The above figure indicates that Asia has a clear edge over the other continents in aquaculture production.
Table 1: Value of Aquaculture production by continent Figure 2: Aquaculture Production by continent
■ The above table and graph indicate how aquaculture production has remained predominantly an Asian output. Besides China, many other developing Asian countries also produce substantial amount of aquatic resources and earn foreign currencies by exporting them.
Table 2: List of Top 10 Aquaculture Producing Countries (in MT)
Source: FAO 2007
Figure 3: List of Top 10 Aquaculture Producing Countries
China has a clear advantage over other Asian aquaculture
producing countries in the world
Source: FAO 2009.
Source: FAO 2009
Figure 4: Exports of Aquatic products by Different Continents
■ Europe and Asia dominate export of aquaculture
Figure 5: Imports of Aquatic products by Different Continents
Europe imports highest amount of aquatic products.
Figure 6: Exports of Aquaculture Products by Selected Countries
■ China exports highest amount of aquatic products followed by
Thailand, Indonesia and India.
Figure 7: Imports of Aquaculture Products by Selected Countries
■ Among the Asian countries, Vietnam and Thailand import highest amount of aquatic products from other countries whereas China, Bangladesh and Indonesia import a negligible amount.
* Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreements: Issues covered under TBT include standards including packaging, labeling requirements and procedures for assessment of conformity.
(1) to export fish and fisheries product to the EU vessels must carry a veterinary certificate and processing factories must be inspected and passed by a national competent authority accredited by the EU. These standards are greater barriers than tariffs;
(2)the EU ban on imports of shrimp from Bangladesh in 1997, imposed on the ground of health safety and hygiene.
The use of anti-dumping measures has increased tremendously after the GATT and WTO agreements restricted the use of normal tariffs. There is accordingly a substantial suspicion that anti-dumping measures to a large extent are being used as protective measures.
Example: Vietnamese experiences for its catfish industry while exporting to a big market such as the USA. The anti-dumping policy of the USA led to a strong decline in export of catfish to the US market.
The Doha Agenda is particularly concerned about the use of subsidies in fisheries by the rich countries which lead to over-exploitation and over-fishing.
Fisheries access agreements could be reformed through WTO’s discipline on subsidies
■Labelling and certification
There is an increased interest in eco-labelling. Though it may be difficult for developing countries to meet certification criterion it can be an incentive for better fisheries management in order for countries to enter developed country markets.