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Revolutions of 1848. Failure or Success. What is Similar/Different About these Two Paintings?. REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 - CAUSES. Lack of voting rights by middle class, urban workers, rural farmers/peasants Nationalism (especially in German states, Austrian Empire, and Italian states)

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Revolutions of 1848

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revolutions of 1848

Revolutions of 1848

Failure or Success

revolutions of 1848 causes
  • Lack of voting rights by middle class, urban workers, rural farmers/peasants
  • Nationalism (especially in German states, Austrian Empire, and Italian states)
  • Liberalism – desire to bring about political and social reform
  • France – Revolution begins here and spreads to other European nations, desire for constitutional government
  • Hungary – Desire for independence from Austria
  • Prussia – Desire for constitutional reform and a unified German nation
  • Sardinia/Rome – Desire for constitutional reform and a unified Italian nation
partner discussion question
Partner Discussion Question
  • Based on the previous map, what areas were not effected by Revolutions in the early 1800s? Why do you think these areas did not have the same problems with uprisings and revolutions? Explain.
where not
  • Great Britain – Political reform came through legislative means in 1832 (voting rights extended to middle and working classes), ability of Parliament to respond to demands of the people
  • Russia – Serfdom kept peasants under tight control, Czar’s secret police intimidated liberals and prevented them from organizing
revolutions of 1848 results
  • Liberal groups could not agree on goals/demands
  • Liberal groups were not united in opposition to conservative forces
  • Conservatives much more organized and able to respond quickly to uprisings
  • Conservatives controlled the armies in the nations under revolt
  • No liberal governments were able to hold onto power


In Italy and Germany


I think I’ll make friends with France and Britain!

I am Count Cavour!

Count di Cavour

Prime Minister of Sardinia

Decides to unify Italy with France’s help and create a constitutional monarchy modeled on Great Britain

Makes alliances with both France and Great Britain

group discussion question
Group Discussion Question
  • Why did Cavour of Sardinia want/need alliances with Great Britain and France? (Hint: Think about Sardinia’s goals and what would be needed to achieve them.)

I am Napoleon III! I look like my famous uncle, non?

Cavour meets with France’s leader, Napoleon III

Gets Napoleon to agree to support Sardinia if Austria attacks Sardinia

1859 - Cavour provokes Austria to attack

France goes to war with Austria

Go France!!


Cavour supports Guiseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts

Garibaldi was a mercenary who fought in Latin American Revolutions and learned guerilla warfare tactics

1860 - Garibaldi invades southern Italy

People of S. Italy support him

Garibaldi unites southern Italy with northern Italy

Cavour invades some of the Papal States

group discussion question1
Group Discussion Question
  • Why was Garibaldi willing to unite Italy and give up his control over Southern Italy to Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II?

Cavour not satisfied with France’s help (does not give Italy all they wanted after defeat of Austria)

Makes friends with Prussia

1866 - Prussia attacks Austria, so Cavour sides with Prussia

Unification almost complete!!!


Franco-Prussian War begins in 1870

Cavour sides with Prussia

Uses this war to invade remaining Papal States and Rome


Italians Unite!


I don’t like democracy! Things only get done with BLOOD and IRON, not debates and votes!

Otto von Bismarck

Prime Minister of Prussia

Decides that Prussia must lead the unification of the German states

Austria though stands in the way due to leadership in the German Confederation

group discussion question2
Group Discussion Question
  • What do you think Bismarck meant when he said, “achieving goals through blood and iron?” Why is this not surprising coming from a Prussian leader?

Bismarck follows three guiding principles

  • Realpolitik
    • Do everything/anything necessary to gain power. No room for idealism (e.g. democracy)
  • Nationalism
  • Militarism
    • Use of war to achieve national goals

War with Denmark

+ War with Austria

+ War with France

= Unification of Germany


War with Denmark - 1864

Prussia allies with Austria to regain German territory

Also to show Prussian army’s strength


War with Austria - 1866

Allies with Italy against Austria

Austria forced out of German Confederation


Vive la France! My country is ze best!

I will march into Paris in 6 weeks. And I will poke out your eyes with my hat!

War with France (Franco-Prussian War) – 1870

Bismarck uses EMS TELEGRAM to provoke France into declaring war on Prussia

Appeals to the nationalism of southern German states to unite with Prussia to defeat France

Unification is complete!!!!

Schweinhund! Germany will win, meinGott!