Revolutions of 1848. Failure or Success. What is Similar/Different About these Two Paintings?. REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 - CAUSES. Lack of voting rights by middle class, urban workers, rural farmers/peasants Nationalism (especially in German states, Austrian Empire, and Italian states)
Failure or Success
In Italy and Germany
I think I’ll make friends with France and Britain!
I am Count Cavour!
Count di Cavour
Prime Minister of Sardinia
Decides to unify Italy with France’s help and create a constitutional monarchy modeled on Great Britain
Makes alliances with both France and Great Britain
I am Napoleon III! I look like my famous uncle, non?
Cavour meets with France’s leader, Napoleon III
Gets Napoleon to agree to support Sardinia if Austria attacks Sardinia
1859 - Cavour provokes Austria to attack
France goes to war with Austria
Cavour supports Guiseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts
Garibaldi was a mercenary who fought in Latin American Revolutions and learned guerilla warfare tactics
1860 - Garibaldi invades southern Italy
People of S. Italy support him
Garibaldi unites southern Italy with northern Italy
Cavour invades some of the Papal States
Cavour not satisfied with France’s help (does not give Italy all they wanted after defeat of Austria)
Makes friends with Prussia
1866 - Prussia attacks Austria, so Cavour sides with Prussia
Unification almost complete!!!
Franco-Prussian War begins in 1870
Cavour sides with Prussia
Uses this war to invade remaining Papal States and Rome
I don’t like democracy! Things only get done with BLOOD and IRON, not debates and votes!
Otto von Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia
Decides that Prussia must lead the unification of the German states
Austria though stands in the way due to leadership in the German Confederation
Bismarck follows three guiding principles
War with Denmark
+ War with Austria
+ War with France
= Unification of Germany
War with Denmark - 1864
Prussia allies with Austria to regain German territory
Also to show Prussian army’s strength
War with Austria - 1866
Allies with Italy against Austria
Austria forced out of German Confederation
Vive la France! My country is ze best!
I will march into Paris in 6 weeks. And I will poke out your eyes with my hat!
War with France (Franco-Prussian War) – 1870
Bismarck uses EMS TELEGRAM to provoke France into declaring war on Prussia
Appeals to the nationalism of southern German states to unite with Prussia to defeat France
Unification is complete!!!!
Schweinhund! Germany will win, meinGott!