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8 LECTURES

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8 LECTURES

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  1. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease Peptic Ulcer Disease Diarrhea Malabsorption Inflammatory bowel disease-1 8 LECTURES Inflammatory bowel disease-2 Colonic polyps and carcinoma-1 Colonic polyps and carcinoma-2

  2. Diarrhea Malabsorption 8 LECTURES

  3. DIARREAHA

  4. Objectives Upon completion of this lecture the students should : • Understand the physiology of fluid in small intestine • Describe the pathophysiology and causes of various types of diarrhea ( Secretory, osmotic, Exudative, Motility-related ) • Define acute diarrhea and enumerate its common causes • Define chronic diarrhea and enumerate its common causes

  5. Physiology of Fluid and small intestine

  6. DIARREAHA DEFINITION • World Health Organization • 3 or more loose or liquid stools per day • Abnormally high fluid content of stool > 200-300 gm/day

  7. Fecal osmolarity • As stool leaves the colon, fecal osmolality is equal to the serum osmolality i.e. 290 mosm/kg. • Under normal circumstances, the major osmoles are Na+, K+, Cl–, and HCO3–.

  8. CLASSIFICATION Acute …………….if 2 weeks, Persistent ……. if 2 to 4 weeks, Chronic ………..if 4 weeks in duration.

  9. Why important? • The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances • Easy to treat but if untreated, may lead to death especially in children

  10. Why important? More than 70 % of almost 11 million child deaths every year are attributable to 6 causes: • Diarrhea • Malaria • neonatal infection • Pneumonia • preterm delivery • lack of oxygen at birth. UNICEF

  11. PathophysiologyCategories of diarrhea Secretory Osmotic Exudative (inflammatory ) Motility-related

  12. Secretory • There is an increase in the active secretion • High stool output • Lack of response to fasting • Normal stool osmotic gap < 100 mOsm/kg • The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a bacterial toxin ( E. coli , cholera) that stimulates the secretion of anions. • Also seen in Endocrine tumours

  13. Osmotic • Excess amount of poorly absorbed substances that exert osmotic effect………water is drawn into the bowels……diarrhea • Stool output is usually not massive • Fasting improve the condition • Stool osmotic gap is high, > 125 mOsm/kg • Can be the result of • Malabsorption in which the nutrients are left in the lumen to pull in water e.g. lactose intolerance 2. osmotic laxatives.

  14. Exudative (inflammatory ) • Results from the outpouring of blood protein, or mucus from an inflamed or ulcerated mucosa • Presence of blood and pus in the stool. • Persists on fasting • Occurs with inflammatory bowel diseases, and invasive infections.

  15. Motility-related • Caused by the rapid movement of food through the intestines (hypermotility). • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – a motor disorder that causes abdominal pain and altered bowel habits with diarrhea predominating

  16. PathophysiologyCategories of diarrhea Secretory Osmotic Exudative (inflammatory ) Motility-related

  17. AetiologyAcute diarrhea? • Approximately 80% of acute diarrheas are due to infections (viruses, bacteria, helminths, and protozoa). • Viral gastroenteritis (viral infection of the stomach and the small intestine) is the most common cause of acute diarrhea worldwide. • Food poisoning • Drugs • Others Rotavirus the cause of nearly 40% of hospitalizations from diarrhea in children under 5

  18. Antibiotic-Associated Diarrheas • Diarrhea occurs in 20% of patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics; about 20% of these diarrheas are due to Clostridium difficile

  19. Aetiology • Chronic diarrhea? • Infection ------------------ e.g.Giardialamblia . AIDS often have chronic infections of their intestines that cause diarrhea. • Post-infectious. Following acute viral, bacterial or parasitic infections • Malabsorption • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) • Endocrine diseases. • Colon cancer • Irritable bowel syndrome.

  20. Complications • Fluids ………………Dehydration • Electrolytes …………….. Electrolytes imbalance • Sodium bicarbonate……. Metabolic acidosis • If persistent ……Malnutrition

  21. Tests useful in the evaluation of diarrhea Acute diarrhea Fecal leukocytes present not present Inflammatory Diarrhea Noninflammatory Diarrhea Suggests a small bowel source Or colon but without mucosal injury • Suggests colonic mucosa damage caused by invasion • shigellosis, salmonellosis, Campylobacter or Yersinia infection, amebiasis) • toxin (C difficile, E coli O157:H7). • Inflammatory bowel diseases

  22. Chronic diarrhea Infection + Stool analysis Ova, parasites - Secretory or Noninfectious inflammatory diarrhea Stool fat test (normal <20%) - + Malabsorption

  23. Diarrhea Malabsorption 8 LECTURES

  24. Objectives Upon completion of this lecture the students will : • Understand that the malabsorption is caused by either abnormal digestion or small intestinal mucosa • Know that malabsorption can affect many organ systems ( alimentary tract, hematopoietic system, musculoskeletal system, endocrine system, epidermis, nervous system) • Concentrate on celiac disease and lactose intolerance as two examples of malabsoption syndrome.

  25. Malabsorption Syndrome Inability of the intestine to absorb nutrients adequately into the bloodstream. Impairment can be of single or multiple nutrients depending on the abnormality.

  26. Physiology • The main purpose of the gastrointestinal tract is to digests and absorbs nutrients (fat, carbohydrate, and protein), micronutrients (vitamins and trace minerals), water, and electrolytes.

  27. Mechanisms and Causes of Malabsorption Syndrome Inadequate digestion Postgastrectomy     Deficiency of pancreatic lipase     Chronic pancreatitis     Cystic fibrosis     Pancreatic resection Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Deficient bile salt     Obstructive jaundice     Bacterial overgrowth     Stasis in blind loops, diverticula     Fistulas Hypomotility states (diabetes)     Terminal ileal resection Crohns' disease     Precipitation of bile salts (neomycin) Primary mucosal abnormalities     Celiac disease     Tropical sprue     Whipple's disease Amyloidosis     Radiation enteritis Abetalipoproteinemia Giardiasis Inadequate small intestine     Intestinal resection Crohn's disease     Mesenteric vascular disease with infarction Jejunoileal bypass Lymphatic obstruction     Intestinal lymphangiectasia     Malignant lymphoma Macroglobulinemia Many causes

  28. Pathophysiology Inadequate digestion Or Small intestine abnormalities Malabsorption =

  29. Pathophysiology Inadequate digestion Stomach Postgastrectomy Pancrease Deficiency of pancreatic lipase Chronic pancreatitis Cystic fibrosis Pancreatic resection Bile Small intestine abnormalities Obstructive jaundice Terminal ileal resection mucosa Inadequate small intestine Lymphatic obstruction

  30. Pathophysiology Inadequate digestion Stomach Pancrease Bile Celiac disease Tropical sprue Whipple's disease Giardiasis Small intestine abnormalities mucosa Intestinal resection Crohn's disease Inadequate small intestine Lymphatic obstruction Intestinal lymphangiectasia Malignant lymphoma

  31. Pathophysiology Pancrease Bile mucosa

  32. MalabsorptionSyndrome Clinical features There is increased fecal excretion of fat (steatorrhea) and the systemic effects of deficiency of vitamins, minerals, protein and carbohydrates. Steatorrhea is passage of soft, yellowish, greasy stools containing an increased amount of fat. Growth retardation, failure to thrive in children Weight loss despite increased oral intake of nutrients.

  33. Clinical features

  34. Malabsorption Syndrome Clinical features Depend on the deficient nutrient Protein Swelling or oedema Anaemias • (fatigue and weakness) B12, folic acid and iron deficiency vitamin D, calcium Muscle cramp • Osteomalacia and osteoporosis vitamin K and other coagulation factor Bleeding tendencies

  35. Diagnosis There is no specific test for malabsorption. Investigation is guided by symptoms and signs. • Fecal fat study to diagnose steatorrhoea • Blood tests • Stool studies 4. Endoscopy Biopsy of small bowel

  36. Malabsorption SyndromeCeliac disease An immune reaction to gliadin fraction of the wheat protein gluten Usually diagnosed in childhood – mid adult. Patients have raised antibodies to gluten autoantibodies Highly specific association with class II HLA DQ2 (haplotypes DR-17 or DR5/7) and, to a lesser extent, DQ8 (haplotype DR-4).

  37. Clinical featuresCeliac disease Typical presentationGI symptoms that characteristically appear at age 9-24 months. Symptoms begin at various times after the introduction of foods that contain gluten. A relationship between the age of onset and the type of presentation; Infants and toddlers….GI symptoms and failure to thrive Childhood…………………minor GI symptoms, inadequate rate of weight gain, Young adults……………anemia is the most common form of presentation. Adults and elderly…...GI symptoms are more prevalent

  38. Endoscopy Normal Celiac disease

  39. Celiac Disease Normal • Histology • Mucosa is flattened with marked villous atrophy. • Increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis

  40. Celiac Disease Diagnosis Clinical documentations of malabsorption. Stool ………. fat Small intestine biopsy demonstrate villous atrophy. Improvement of symptom and mucosal histology on gluten withdrawal from diet. wheat, barley, flour Other grains, such as rice and corn flour, do not have such an effect.

  41. Celiac Disease Complications Osteopenia , osteoporosis Infertility in women Short stature, delayed puberty, anemia, Malignancies,[ intestinal T-cell lymphoma] 10 to 15% risk of developing GI lymphoma.

  42. Lactose Intolerance

  43. Lactose IntolerancePathophysiology lactase Lactose glucose + galactose At the brush border of enterocytes Lactose Intolerance Low or absent activity of the enzyme lactase

  44. Lactose Intolerancecauses Inherited lactase deficiency Congenital lactase deficiency Childhood-onset and adult-onset lactase deficiency extremely rare common Genetically programmed progressive loss of the activity of the small intestinal enzyme lactase. Gastroenteritis: Infectious diarrhea, particularly viral gastroenteritis in younger children, may damage the intestinal mucosa enough to reduce the quantity of the lactase enzyme. Acquired lactase deficiency Transient Secondary lactase deficiency due to intestinal mucosal injury by an infectious, allergic, or inflammatory process

  45. Clinical Bloating, abdominal discomfort, and flatulence ……………1 hour to a few hours after ingestion of milk products

  46. Lactose Intolerance Diagnosis Empirical treatment with a lactose-free diet, which results in resolution of symptoms; Hydrogen breath test

  47. Hydrogen breath test . • An oral dose of lactose is administered • The sole source of H2 is bacterial fermentation; • Unabsorbed lactose makes its way to colonic bacteria, resulting in excess breath H2. • Increased exhaled H2 after lactose ingestion suggests lactose malabsorption.

  48. A 3-week trial of a diet that is free of milk and milk products is a satisfactory trial to diagnose lactose intolerance

  49. Lactose Intolerancesummary • Deficiency/absence of the enzyme lactase in the brush border of the intestinal mucosa → maldigestion and malabsorption of lactose • Unabsorbed lactose draws water in the intestinal lumen • In the colon, lactose is metabolized by bacteria to organic acid, CO2 and H2; acid is an irritant and exerts an osmotic effect • Causes diarrhea, gaseousness, bloating and abdominal cramps