Psychological therapies
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Psychological Therapies. Therapy. There are over 250 identifiable types of psychotherapy, though the most influential are: Psychoanalysis Therapies Humanistic Therapies Behavior Therapies Cognitive Therapies Group and Family Therapies

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  • There are over 250 identifiable types of psychotherapy, though the most influential are:

    • Psychoanalysis Therapies

    • Humanistic Therapies

    • Behavior Therapies

    • Cognitive Therapies

    • Group and Family Therapies

      • Any therapist who uses a combination of therapies is said to be using an “eclectic” approach to therapy


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Psychoanalysis though the most influential are:


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Psychoanalysis assumes that many psychological problems are fueled by the childhood repression of impulses and conflicts. These unresolved issues impact our future behaviors and social relationships.


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It is the job of a psychoanalyst to bring the repressed feelings into conscious awareness and gain insight as to the real source of a patient’s problem in order to resolve the conflict and bring to closure its accompanying behaviors.


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Free Association feelings into conscious awareness and gain insight as to the real source of a patient’s problem in order to resolve the conflict and bring to closure its accompanying behaviors.

  • A method of exploring the unconscious, in which a person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing


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Free Association feelings into conscious awareness and gain insight as to the real source of a patient’s problem in order to resolve the conflict and bring to closure its accompanying behaviors.

  • During free association, though, patients almost instinctively begin to edit themselves, feeling that some information is too trivial, irrelevant, or shameful. These blocks in the flow of free association are called resistance.


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Resistance feelings into conscious awareness and gain insight as to the real source of a patient’s problem in order to resolve the conflict and bring to closure its accompanying behaviors.

  • Resistance hints at anxiety and the repression of sensitive material. Interpretation then involves the recognition by both the therapist and the patient that there are repressed issues to deal with….and then the process of actually dealing with those issues begins


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Transference feelings into conscious awareness and gain insight as to the real source of a patient’s problem in order to resolve the conflict and bring to closure its accompanying behaviors.

  • Sometimes while revealing their secrets, patients may begin to experience strong feelings towards their therapists. Transferring emotions from one experience to the therapist is called transference. It’s then easier to deal with emotions if they aren’t as personalized anymore.


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Humanistic Therapies feelings into conscious awareness and gain insight as to the real source of a patient’s problem in order to resolve the conflict and bring to closure its accompanying behaviors.


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Disorders arise when people feel like they’ve underachieved, when they perceive themselves as less than ideal, or when they haven’t reached their fullest potential. (Self-Actualization)


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  • IE. My depression is caused by the fact that I didn’t get a promotion, therefore I must be a very bad employee. (Safety, Esteem)

  • IE. The secondary personality of Charlie arises when Steve feels bullied. Steve is too weak to deal with it, but Charlie can. (Safety)

  • IE. Timmy broke up with me because I’m fat. I’ll stop eating so I can be thin. (Love and Belongingness)


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A therapist needs to recognize where the barriers to reaching self-actualization are (is it a safety issue? an esteem issue?), and help the client improve in this area in order to reach their potential. The symptoms of the disorder should fade as a person improves.


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Free Will reaching self-actualization are (is it a safety issue? an esteem issue?), and help the client improve in this area in order to reach their potential. The symptoms of the disorder should fade as a person improves.

Patients need to be reminded that they are capable of controlling their own destiny

  • I don’t have to be a bad employee. I can get a new job that maximizes my skills, or learn new skills to help me achieve my current career goals.

  • I don’t have to lose weight. I can date who I want to, be friends with who I want to, with someone who appreciates me.


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Client-Centered Therapy reaching self-actualization are (is it a safety issue? an esteem issue?), and help the client improve in this area in order to reach their potential. The symptoms of the disorder should fade as a person improves.

There are four parts to this approach, with the ultimate goal of allowing a client to become more self-assured and on a path towards self-actualization.


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Genuineness reaching self-actualization are (is it a safety issue? an esteem issue?), and help the client improve in this area in order to reach their potential. The symptoms of the disorder should fade as a person improves.

  • Authenticity. Aware of one’s own true inner thoughts and feelings. Be able to share, honestly. No fakeness, defensiveness, or role playing. This is true for the client and the therapist.


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Unconditional Positive Regard often, or didn’t take the job seriously.

  • A genuine caring for people based on their innate value as individuals. Clients are cherished and respected without judgment. Avoiding evaluative statements of good and bad.

    • If the therapist finds value in you, you will as well.


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Empathetic Understanding often, or didn’t take the job seriously.

Sensitive understanding and sharing of another person’s inner experiences. Open-ended questions to explore feelings and express emotions.


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Active Listening often, or didn’t take the job seriously.

Active-listening involves a therapists technique of listening intently, echoing, restarting and seeking clarification, and acknowledgement of a clients expressed verbal and non-verbal emotions


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  • “I understand that…..” often, or didn’t take the job seriously.

  • “So, what you’re saying is…”

  • “Ok, let’s talk about this a bit more…”

  • “How did that make you feel…”

  • OK, maybe I did do everything I could to get the promotion and I’m just underappreciated.

  • Maybe I did everything I could in that relationship, and it wasn’t my fault that it ended.


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Cognitive Therapies often, or didn’t take the job seriously.


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Cognitive therapy assumes that often, or didn’t take the job seriously.faulty thought processes and beliefs create problem behaviors and emotions. When people hold beliefs that are irrational, that are overly demanding, or that fail to match reality, their emotions and behaviors may become disturbed.


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Cognitive therapy involves learning skills that allow you to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to change the thought processes of patients from negative to positive to alleviate disorder symptoms.


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Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to


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  • Identify the to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to activating event, which is the stimulus for the feelings and behaviors.


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  • Understand the to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to belief system, which is the patient’s interpretation of the activating experience


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  • Observe the emotional and behavioral to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to consequences that the patient experiences as a result of their belief system


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  • Dispute to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to , or challenge, the erroneous belief with logic, with rational thought


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  • Activating Event: to see the connection between thoughts and upsetting feelings, to appraise the accuracy of these thoughts that are creating upsetting feelings, and if they are inaccurate, to make them more accurate. A therapist wants to

    Low Exam Grade

  • Irrational Beliefs:

    I’m so unintelligent. I’ll never graduate college

  • Emotional/Behavioral Consequences:

    I’m depressed.

    (this reinforces your feelings of being unintelligent as well, which makes you further depressed)

  • Dispute:

    It’s only one grade amongst many. I can do better on the next test and still pass.


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  • Having made a mistake at work, a person may believe, "I'm useless and can't do anything right at work." Strongly believing this, in turn, tends to worsen his mood. The problem may be worsened further if the individual reacts by avoiding activities and then behaviorally confirming his negative belief to himself.


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  • In therapy, the latter example could be identified as a self-fulfilling prophecy or "problem cycle," and the efforts of the therapist and client would be directed at working together to change it. This is done by addressing the way the client thinks and behaves in response to similar situations and by developing more flexible ways to think and respond, including reducing the avoidance of activities.


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  • If, as a result, the client escapes the negative thought patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.


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Socratic Questioning patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

  • Get them to think more about what exactly they are asking or thinking about. Prove the concepts behind their argument.

  • Probing of assumptions makes them think about the presuppositions and unquestioned beliefs on which they are founding their argument.

  • When they give a rationale for their arguments, dig into that reasoning rather than assuming it is a given.

  • Most arguments are given from a particular position. So attack the position. Show that there are other, equally valid, viewpoints.


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Behavior Therapies patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.


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  • Behaviorists believe that problem behaviors patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.are learned behaviors. To treat disorders is toeliminate or unlearnthe problem behavior through various methods of counterconditioning


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Classical Counter Conditioning patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

  • Systematic Desensitization

  • Implosive Therapy

  • Aversive Conditioning


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Systematic Desensitization patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

  • Progressive Relaxation

  • Anxiety Hierarchy

    • Control Scene

  • Desensitization


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Progressive Relaxation patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

  • A method of successfully relaxing one muscle group after another until a deep state of relaxation is achieved.


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Anxiety Hierarchy patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

A patient creates a list of anxiety provoking images associated with the feared situation, arranged in a hierarchy from least to most anxiety producing.

  • Control Scene

    • A soothing mental image to initiate muscle relaxation. If you begin to feel stressed, think of….walking on a beach, a sunny day, etc.


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Lowest to Highest – Fear of Flying patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

  • Packing luggage

  • Realizing you have to make a flight

  • Making reservations

  • Driving to the airport

  • Checking in

  • Waiting for boarding

    • Boarding the plane

  • Waiting for departure

  • Taking off

  • Climbing to cruising altitude

  • In-flight service

    • Moving around the cabin

  • Turbulence

    • Descending

    • Landing


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Systematic Desensitization patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

  • While deeply relaxed, the patient imagines the least threatening scene in the anxiety hierarchy. As long as they stay relaxed, they progress upwards. If they feel stressed, they find their control scene and start over. Gradually, a patient works from imagining the scenes to experiencing the events in real life.


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Systematic Desensitization patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings. is also known as exposure therapy. A therapist is attempting to graduallysubstitute a positive response for a negative response to a harmless stimulus.


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Implosive Therapy patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

Floods patients with their worst fears first, in hopes that by confronting their worst fears, they’ll learn how to not back down


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Aversive Conditioning patterns and dysfunctional behaviors, the feelings of depression may, over time, be relieved. The client may then become more active, succeed and respond more adaptively more often, and further reduce or cope with his negative feelings.

In aversive conditioning, a therapist tries to replace a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.


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Operant Counter Conditioning habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

  • Use positive reinforcers to shape behavior that they want to continue

  • Withhold reinforcement, or punish, to stop undesirable behaviors


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Token Economy habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

A token economy is one in which a therapist rewards patients for displaying appropriate behaviors by giving them a token, such as a ticket or a plastic coin, that they can later exchange for prizes or gifts.


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  • Music Therapy habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

  • Treating Depression With Magnetic Stimulation

  • Controversy, The Use of Medications

  • The Mind and Healing

  • Treating Brain Injuries

  • Treating Depression

  • Electroconvulsive Therapy

  • A&E Series Intervention

  • Celebrity Rehab With Dr. Drew


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  • Light Exposure Therapy habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

    • Especially for seasonal affective disorder, or depression brought on seasonal changes from summer to winter (less light). The therapy includes timed doses of intense light in “light boxes”.


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  • Electroconvulsive Therapy habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

    • Patient’s brains are given momentary shock treatments, generally for about 30 minutes.

    • Patients are given an anesthetic so that they are not conscious, and a muscle relaxant to prevent any injuries that may occur from convulsions.

      Electroconvulsive Therapy


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  • Electroconvulsive Therapy habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

    • Especially used in cases of deep depression, but historically/barbarically used for almost anything determined to be abnormal behavior.

    • May work by helping the release of norepinephrine in the brain, which is responsible for elevating arousal and mode.

    • May work by calming areas of the brain that are overactive during depressed periods.


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  • Psychosurgery habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

    • Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.

    • Once popular, but no more, a lobotomy cuts the nerves that connect the frontal lobe to the emotion-controlling centers in the inner-brain.


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  • Psychopharmacology habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

    • The study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior


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  • Antipsychotic Drugs habit. A therapist would cover Dave’s thumb with hot pepper before bed time. Dave does not like the taste of hot peppers, and therefore he will stop sucking his thumb

    • Drugs used for the purpose of calming psychotic patients (such as schizophrenia) characterized by defective or lost contact with reality (ie. hallucinations, paranoia, apathy, withdrawal)

    • IE. Thorazine, Clozaril, Haldol


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  • Antianxiety Drugs receptor sites for

    • Are used for the purpose of alleviating the symptoms stemming from frightening situations and fear-inducing stimuli

    • IE. Xanax, Valium


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  • Antianxiety drugs work by receptor sites for depressing the central nervous system activity, generally by increasing the effectiveness of the calming neurotransmitter, GABA.


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  • Antidepressant Drugs receptor sites for

    • The purpose is to lift people up from a state of depression

    • IE. Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft


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  • Lithium receptor sites for is an anti-depressant used mainly for manic-depressives (bipolar)


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