You Can Make a Positive Impact on a Child’s Oral Health! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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You Can Make a Positive Impact on a Child’s Oral Health!

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  1. You Can Make a Positive Impact on a Child’s Oral Health! Oral Health Care for Very Young Children and Children with Special Health Care Needs Division of Dental Health Virginia Department of Health 109 Governor Street Richmond, Virginia 23219 804-864-7775 www.vahealth.org/dental

  2. Oral Health Care For Very Young Children and Children With Special Health Care Needs(CSHCN) For more information or to schedule an oral health presentation contact: Kami A. Piscitelli, BSDH, RDH Special Needs Oral Health Coordinator Division of Dental Health 804-864-7804 kami.piscitelli@vdh.virginia.gov Funded by Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  3. What can you do? You’re already doing something! You’re here! You can make an impact by: • Increasing your awareness of the oral health needs of children • Promoting oral health to families of young children and CSHCN • Encouraging age one dental visits

  4. Topics Why oral health is important? What are the two most common dental diseases? The results of untreated dental disease Common dental problems of CSHCN Prevention of dental disease Visiting the Dentist

  5. At what age should children start seeing the dentist?

  6. Background Tooth decay is the most common chronic childhood disease. Tooth decay is 5 times more common than asthma; 7 times more common than hayfever. Approximately 28% of children ages 2-5 years old have tooth decay. CSHCN are almost twice as likely to have unmet oral health needs than children without SHCN.

  7. Why is this important? They are only teeth!

  8. The Function of Teeth Chewing / Digestion Speech Facial appearance Bone structure Confidence

  9. Baby Teeth Are Important Too! • Guide eruption of permanent teeth • Healthy baby teeth = healthy permanent teeth

  10. Baby Teeth

  11. Oral Health Affects General Health In the Mouth Overall Health

  12. General Health Affects Oral Health HealthFactors Oral Health

  13. Two Most Common Dental Diseases ? ?

  14. Two Most Common Dental Diseases Tooth Decay disease process also called Caries cavities are the result Periodontal “Gum” Disease Gingivitis Periodontitis

  15. Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Definition: The presence of one or more decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in a child younger than six Begins soon after teeth erupt and can progress to a cavity in only 6-12 months Very quick, destructive form of decay Costly to treat Children have trouble cooperating because of age/condition Often requires oral sedation or general anesthesia

  16. Factors Necessary for Tooth Decay 1. Bacteria: Streptococcus mutans 2. Food: fermentable carbohydrates (break down quickly) 3. Susceptible tooth 4. Exposure time This child is 1 ½ - 2 years old.

  17. 1. Bacteria Transmitted from parent to child, not born with it Infectious disease process Window of infectivity: highest in the first two years Early exposure to S. mutans is one of the major risk factors for future cavities Plaque: sticky film

  18. Transmission of Bacteria Sharing of forks, spoons, straws Testing food temperatures “Cleaning” pacifier Pre-chewing food

  19. 2. Food: Fermentable Carbohydrates Simple or complex carbs: sugars, starches Bacteria uses the food to produce an acid Acid ‘demineralizes’ or eats away at the surface enamel, starting the disease process ‘White spot’ appears, normally at gumline

  20. Snacks Foods low in sugar: Cheese Fruits Vegetables Cheerios, Rice Chex, Life, Kix, Corn Flakes Foods high in sugar: Candy Cookies Sodas Fruit drinks Sugar Smacks, Sugar Pops Approximately 4 Grams of sugar are in one teaspoon

  21. 3. Susceptible Tooth • Susceptibility of the tooth is directly related to fluoride exposure • What is Fluoride? • a natural mineral • found in ground water (wells) and surface water (lakes, ponds) • fluoride is added to most community water supplies in Virginia for dental benefits • tooth enamel ‘absorbs’ fluoride before and after eruption • enamel is then more resistant to decay process

  22. Fluoride Fluoride has several preventive effects Increases tooth’s resistance to cavities Encourages healing of new small cavities Prevents bacteria from making acid 2 categories of fluoride exposure Systemic (swallowed) – benefits teeth before and after they come in Topical – benefits teeth after they come in

  23. Topical vs. Systemic Topical: outside the tooth / enamel Systemic: through bloodstream

  24. Systemic (Swallowed) Fluoride Sources Water with fluoride (fluoridated water) Community water supplies Naturally occurring in well water Bottled water normally not fluoridated Water filters Fluoride prescription Prescribed based on results of water testing and other fluoride sources Drops, liquids, tablets (also topical benefits)

  25. Topical Fluoride Sources Fluoridated water Fluoride toothpastes (ADA seal) Over the counter fluoride rinses Prescription supplements When chewed or liquid Professionally applied fluoride Gels, foams, rinses Varnish

  26. Fluoride Varnish Safe and effective, 40-60% decrease in tooth decay Easy to apply Applied by nurses, doctors, dentists, and dental hygienists

  27. 4. Time (Acid Attacks) The more time teeth are exposed to the acids produced by the combination of bacteria and food, the more likely tooth decay will occur! (20-40 min acid attacks)

  28. Results of Untreated Tooth Decay • Unnecessary pain and discomfort • Unfavorable treatment experiences • Systemic (whole body) infections • Premature loss of primary teeth • Increased risk for permanent tooth decay • Loss of school/work time • Increased treatment expense

  29. Periodontal (Gum) Disease Process 1. Plaque (bacteria) left on teeth and around gums 2. Gingivitis 3. Periodontal Disease

  30. Gingivitis Irritation and inflammation of the gums Puffy, red gums that bleed easily Bleeding is not normal Signal to brush better Can be completely reversed and controlled with good oral hygiene

  31. Periodontal (Gum) Disease Causes irreversible bone loss in the bone surrounding the teeth Leads to tooth loss Often completely painless, only a dentist or hygienist can detect the beginning stages Early stage treatment can stop or control the disease Later stages of the disease are much more difficult to treat

  32. Periodontal Disease

  33. Conditions Linked to Gum Disease Heart disease Stroke Diabetes Pre-term low birth weight babies Lung infections

  34. CSHCN Common Dental Problems Bruxism: grinding/gritting teeth Wear/damage of teeth, TMJ disorders Older children may need a night guard Excessive drool Skin chaffing/rash, cracked/bleeding lips Use lotion, creams, lip balm Reflux/vomiting Erosion of teeth, increased cavities Use baking soda rinses ¼ - ½ tsp soda to 1 cup water

  35. CSHCN Common Dental Problems Pouching: holding food in the folds of the cheeks Increased decay, periodontal disease, bad breath Frequent oral hygiene care Picking or poking at gums/teeth (source?) Trauma to teeth and gums Oral exam and behavior modification Xerostomia (Dry Mouth) Increased decay and mouth sores Saliva substitutes, sugar-free candy/gum – age?

  36. Prevention Facts Preventing decay in primary teeth reduces risk in permanent teeth Preventing decay until age 4 reduces risk of decay through age 18

  37. How can you prevent dental diseases? Positioning Lift the lip/ identify disease Oral hygiene Brush/floss Modifications Fluoride Nutrition Injury prevention Dental visits

  38. Positioning at Home Positioning depends on each individual family and child Head in your lap Standing with you behind supporting head Bean bag or pillows Child sitting on floor and you sit in chair right behind Knee to knee when two adults available Be careful of tilting head too far back if there is difficulty swallowing or gagging or neck injury concern

  39. Lift the Lip Get to know your child’s mouth Early decay is most commonly found on the lingual (back) surfaces of the front teeth. Abscesses (infections) can hide from you

  40. Disease Identification Identify “White Spot” Pre-decay and active decay

  41. Disease Identification

  42. Disease Identification

  43. Disease Identification

  44. Disease Identification

  45. Disease Identification

  46. Disease Identification Periodontal (Gum) Disease Gingival overgrowth Fungal/Viral Infection

  47. Brushing the Teeth Infants (less than 2 years old) Gums should be wiped twice daily When teeth erupt, brushed twice daily Use a rice grain sized amount of fluoride toothpaste Toddlers and Preschool (older than 2 years) Brush teeth at least twice daily Use pea sized (or a kernel of corn sized) amount of fluoride toothpaste Parent supervision and help with brushing until age 7-10 years Depends on skill level of the individual child

  48. How To Brush Use clean hands Use a soft bristled brush Brush the front, back, & biting surfaces of each tooth Use same pattern each time so you don’t miss teeth Angle the brush toward the gums and brush with a circular motion Include gumline and tongue

  49. Brushing Tips If unable to spit, wipe with damp or dry clean cloth Change toothbrush every 3 months or when bristles look out of shape If child doesn’t tolerate toothpaste, try dipping brush in an over-the-counter fluoride mouth rinse (like ACT) then brush Let the child be as independent as possible, use the toothbrush themselves, then you brush as well