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LING 304 SEMANTICS. YANBU UNIVERSITY COLLEGE APPLIED LINGUISTICS DEPARTMENT FIRST SEMESTER-131 Prepared by : Ms. Sahar Deknash. Linguistics and Semantics.

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Ling 304 semantics

LING 304SEMANTICS

YANBU UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

APPLIED LINGUISTICS DEPARTMENT

FIRST SEMESTER-131

Prepared by : Ms. SaharDeknash


Linguistics and semantics
Linguistics and Semantics

Semantics is defined as one branch of theoretical linguistics ( pure linguistics) that studies the linguistic meaning ( lexical meaning) of words, phrases and sentences. When we study the meaning of words, we usually concentrate on the denotative ( literal ) meaning more than the connotative meaning.Lexical Semanticsis concerned with the meaning of morphemes and words; Compositional Semanticsis concerned with the meaning of phrases and sentences.


Ling 304 semantics

Semantics deals usually with the philosophical, psychological, linguistics and social aspects of the words, phrase and sentences. It studies the relationship between the form and the meaning.


Varieties of meaning
Varieties of Meaning

So far, meaning is a very complicated matter and there is no exact theory about how languages determine meaning.

  • Denotative ( referential, literal, conceptual, linguistic) meaning:

    It refers to the basic meaning of a word that can be obtained from the dictionary that is common to all native speakers of a language. It is actually what the word refers to or signifies.


Ling 304 semantics

The word needle is defined as a sharp, thin metal tool.


Ling 304 semantics

Connotative ( figurative, expressive, associative, social) meaning:

It refers to the figurative use of the meaning of a word that can be common between people or specific to an individual according to his personal experience with the assigned word. Some words have positive or negative connotation. It refers to the personal and psychological attachment of the person toward that word.


Ling 304 semantics

The word needle is associated with meanings like: blood, pain, drug and hard to find.

The associative meaning of an expression has to do with individual mental understandings of the speaker.


Ling 304 semantics

Relative Meaning (subjective) pain, drug and hard to find.

- It is a group of words found in most languages which are relative in meaning.

  • The denotative meaning of each word differs from one person to another. They usually refer to [ distance/weight/size/number]

  • They can be adjectives: tall/short

    easy/difficult


Ling 304 semantics

light/heavy pain, drug and hard to find.

small/large

Nouns: shortness/length

Adverbs: slowly/quickly

Verbs: shorten/ lengthen


Ling 304 semantics

Collocative meaning pain, drug and hard to find.:

It describes words regularly appear together in common use with certain contexts.

Thematic meaning:

It concerns itself with how the order of words spoken affect the meaning that is entailed.


Ling 304 semantics

Speaker meaning and sentence ( word) meaning: pain, drug and hard to find.

It is possible for a speaker to convey a quite intelligible intention by using a sentence whose literal meaning is contradictory or nonsensical. To account for this, it is necessary to analyze it at two levels:

  • To show what is wrong with such sentences.

  • Why it can’t be literally true.


Ling 304 semantics

THANK pain, drug and hard to find.YOU

PREPARE UNIT TWO

SENTENCES, UTTERANCES AND PROPOSITIONS