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Publication Process For Journal Articles. Submit article taking into consideration the “Instructions To Authors” (length of manuscript, types of manuscripts, format, etc.) Choose a journal that has previously published articles similar to yours.

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Publication Process For Journal Articles

  • Submit article taking into consideration the “Instructions To Authors” (length of manuscript, types of manuscripts, format, etc.)

  • Choose a journal that has previously published articles similar to yours.

  • Usually, the more prestigious the journal the greater the impact the article will have but the lower the probability of acceptance.

  • Article is sent to “expert” reviewers.

  • Editor considers the reactions of the reviewers and makes a publication decision.


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Publication Decisions

  • Accept-Your article is now “in press” and will be published. Reputable journals rarely if ever accept the article on the first submission.

  • Resubmit-You are invited to resubmit the article taking into consideration the editor and the reviewer’s comments.

  • Reject-The journal is not interested in publishing your article.


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Habituation in Spirostomum ambiguum

  • Habituation: A response decrement to repetitive stimulation

  • Spirostomum is an asexual ciliated protozoa


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Habituation in Spirostomum ambiguum

  • Are multiple cells required for learning ?

  • Chemical bases of learning


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Habituation in Spirostomum ambiguum

  • Place individuals on a slide

  • Tap slide with a mechanical stimulus each 4 seconds

  • Animal shows a response decrement (habituation) after 12 to 15 stimuli


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The Extraordinary Spirostomum ambiguum

  • Spirostomum can remember for a least 10 minutes

  • Dishabituation

  • These ciliates appear to be attracted to one another


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E. B. Twitmyer

  • A Beauty Never to See Flower

  • A discoverer of the conditioned reflex


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Ivan Pavlov

  • A Russian physiologist

  • Discovered the conditioned reflex by chance

  • Why did Pavlov achieve such renown for his discovery and Twitmyer go unnoticed?


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Some Negative Side Effects Of Punishment

  • Person who is punished avoids the punisher.

  • Punishment may model inappropriate aggressive behavior.

  • Punishment can reduce self-esteem.

  • Punishment teaches you what not to do but not what to do.

  • Punishment teaches people to do the minimum.

  • The use of aversive stimuli are hard to control.



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B. F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning

  • My introduction to B.F. Skinner

  • Skinner and society



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Caswell Center

Caswell Center


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Goal Of Behavior Therapy And A Few Definitions

Goal: To provide the individual with better control over themselves or their environment.

Baseline: Behavior prior to intervention.

Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior.

Prompt: A stimulus used to increase the probability of a correct response.

Fading: Gradual removal of a prompt.

Chaining: Reinforcing the last behavior in the sequence, the next to last behavior, etc.


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Four Types Of Prompts

Physical Assistance: Moving an individual through the desired responses. Negative Reinforcement-The withdrawal of a stimulus that increases the probability of the response it follows.

Modeling: Imitating the desired behavior.

Pointing: Designating a location.

Verbal Instruction: Describing how to perform a particular behavior.


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Mary Cover Jones: Counterconditioning

Greg and the empty toilet paper roll


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What Is Automation ?

Any sensing, detection, information-processing, decision-making, or control action that could be performed by humans but is actually performed by a machine” (Moray, Inagaki, & Itoh, 2000)

Automation is usually viewed as a continuum, ranging from manual control to full automation.


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Some Quotes About Technology

But lo!! Men have become the tools of their tools. - Henry David Thoreau


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Some Quotes About Technology

It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity. - Albert Einstein


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Some Quotes About Technology

We live in a time when automation is ushering in a second industrial revolution. - Adlai E. Stephenson


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Some Quotes About Technology

The first rule of a technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify inefficiency. - Bill Gates


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Four Generations of Artificial Environments (AEs)

Where we have been, where we are, and where we are going


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First Generation

Unidirectional Communication-Information moves from the machine to the person but not the person to the machine.

Perform the actions necessary to accomplish the objective via automated or manual control.


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Second Generation

Bidirectional Communication-Information moves from the machine to the person and from the person to the machine.

Perform the actions necessary to accomplish the objective via automated or manual control.


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Third Generation

Virtual Reality-Information moves from the machine to the person and from the person to the machine. Ideally, the synthetic environment is indistinguishable from the actual environment.

Perform the actions necessary to accomplish the objective via automated or manual control.


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Fourth Generation

Life Simulation-The synthetic and actual environments are indistinguishable and the person does not know whether they are in an actual or synthetic world.

Perform the actions necessary to accomplish the objective via automated or manual control.