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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ENDOKRIEN SISTEEM. Dr Resia Pretorius Hoof: Afdeling Histologie, Department Anatomie Kamer 6-27 Departement Anatomie Tel: 319 2533. Division / Indeling. Pituitary / hipofese Hipothalamus / hypothalamus Thyroid / skildklier Parathyroid/ byskildklier Thymys / timus

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endocrine system endokrien sisteem

ENDOCRINE SYSTEMENDOKRIEN SISTEEM

Dr Resia Pretorius

Hoof: Afdeling Histologie, Department Anatomie

Kamer 6-27 Departement Anatomie

Tel: 319 2533

division indeling
Division/ Indeling
  • Pituitary / hipofese
  • Hipothalamus / hypothalamus
  • Thyroid / skildklier
  • Parathyroid/byskildklier
  • Thymys / timus
  • pineal/ pineaalklier
  • kidney/ nier
  • pancreas/pankreas
  • adrenals / bynier of adrenaalklier
  • ovary/ovaria
  • testis
pituitary hipofese
Pituitary/hipofese
  • Underneath the base of the brain
  • attached via stem = infundibulum
  • Gland is split into anterior and posterior area (adult absent)
  • dura mater surrounds gland
  • rest on sfenoid bone - cells of turcica
  • 4 areas
slide6
Pars anterior (pars distalis, anterior lobe)
  • pars tuberalis
  • pars intermedia
  • pars posterior (pars nervosa, posterior lobe)
slide7

Pars tuberalis

Pars distalis

pars intermedia

Anterior lob

  • Adenohipofese
  • Neurohipofese

Pars nervosa

Infundibulum

Emmenentia medialis

Posterior lob

embryonic development of pituitary gland
Embryonic development of Pituitary gland
  • Derived from an ectodermal outpocketing of the stomodeum (Rathke's Pouch) and in part from the floor of the diencephalon (infundibulum).
embryological development
Embryological development
  • stomodeum (Rathke's Pouch)
  • diencephalon (infundibulum).
embryological development11
Embryological development
  • Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe) is derived from Rathke's Pouch and the neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) is derived from the infundibulum
slide12
The larger portion, (adenohypophysis), is toward the top.
  • Left - superior aspect with the stalk coming
  • from the hypothalamus entering it.
  • Inferior - right.
  • The posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) is the smaller portion at the bottom.
pituitary fine structure hipofese mikroskopiese struktuur
Pituitary (fine structure)Hipofese (mikroskopiese struktuur)
  • The adenohypophysis is at the right
  • The neurohypophysis is at the left.
adenohypophysis cells
Adenohypophysis: cells
  • ACIDOPHILS (35%) (pink)
  • growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)
  • BASOPHILS (15%)(Dark purple)
  • corticotrophin (ACTH),
  • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and gonadotrophins
  • follicle stimulating hormone-luteinizing hormone (FSH and LH)
  • CHROMATOPHOBES (chromofobe)(50%) (Pale staining)
  • few cytoplasmic granules, but may have secretory activity.
pars distalis anterior lobe adenohipofese
Pars distalis(anterior lobe/adenohipofese)
  • 75% of the anterior lobe
  • cells form branched chords
  • between cells fenestrated capillaries
  • Cells:
  • CHROMOPHOBES(chromatofobe) resting AND CHROMOPHILS (hormone sectreting)
  • = asidophils and basophils
pars tuberalis
Pars tuberalis
  • Collar of cells surrounding infundibulum
  • kraag selle
  • Upwards lengthening of pars distalis
  • rich blood supply
  • Endocrine cells in groups (cuboidal) koorde (kubies)
  • Nests of flattened cells andsmall follicles (nessies plat selle en klein follikels)
  • function: unknown
pars intermedia
Pars intermedia
  • Not well developed
  • residual lumen of Rathke’s pouch oorblyfsel van Rathke se sak
  • Colloid filled cysts kolloid
  • endocrine cells
neurohypophysis
Neurohypophysis
  • Pars nervosa
  • infundibulum
  • Emmenentia medialis
neurohipofese
Neurohipofese
  • resembles neural issue, with glial cells, nerve fibers, nerve endings, and intra-axonal neurosecretory granules.
  • hormones transported into the intra-axonal neurosecretory granules where they are released.
pars nervosa neurohipofese en posterior lob
Pars nervosa (Neurohipofese en posterior lob)
  • Neuron cell bodies
  • Nerve fibers
  • Pituicytes (neuroglia; astrocytes)
  • Nerve endings
  • Herring bodies
pineal gland pineaalklier
PINEAL GLAND/PINEAALKLIER
  • The pineal gland was called the "third eye" by ancient people.
  • center for the production of the hormone melatonin.
  • Melatonin is implicated in a wide range of human activities.
  • It regulates daily body rhythms, most notably the day/night cycle (circadian rhythms).
slide25
Claims that the hormone slows the aging
  • process (a defense against free radicals)
  • prevents jet lag, is implicated in seasonal affective disorder, coordinates fertility,
  • allows for deep restful sleep patterns.
slide26
The pineal gland calcifies with age and melatonin production correspondingly decreases.
  • This decline in melatonin has been suggested to be a trigger for the aging process.
  • pineal gland is a center for navigation in birds
pineaalklier
Pineaalklier
  • Pia mater om klier = septa
  • lobules
  • Pinealosiete ( irregular) vertakte prosesse
  • neuroglia (ondersteunend)
thyroid
Thyroid
  • Structural unit = follicle; connective tissue capsule - lobes
  • follicular cells or principal cells spoed van metabolisme
  • parafollicular cells or C cells verlaag bloedkalsium
  • colloid (inactive storage form of thyroglobulin)
  • fenestrated capillaries and reticular network
thyroid papillary carcinoma36
Thyroid papillary carcinoma
  • The most favorite site of metastasis
  • is to local lymph nodes in the neck.
thyroid medullary carcinoma
Thyroid medullary carcinoma
  • At the center and to the right is a medullary carcinoma of thyroid.
  • These neoplasms are derived from the thyroid "C" cells and, therefore, have neuroendocrine features such as ecretion of calcitonin.
parathyroids byskildklier
Parathyroids/ byskildklier
  • Endocrine cells denely packed into chords
  • principal cells/ klein selle; glikogeen; kalsiummetabolisme
  • Oxyphil cells/ oksifiele
  • Fenestrated capillaries
adrenals b ynier
Adrenals/ bynier
  • Cortex (90%) mesoderm - steroid secretion portion
  • medulla (10%)ectoderm - catecholamine secretion
  • rich blood supply - fenestrated capillaries
  • reticular network
cortex
Cortex
  • Zona glomerulosa (15%) onder kapsel
  • klein onreëlmatige groepies; kapillêre tussenin
  • Zona fasciculata (78%)
  • reguit koorde selle; veelhoekig; kapillêre tussen koorde
  • Zona reticularis (7%) network dark nuclei
medulla
Medulla
  • Endocrine cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves
  • cells in groups and chords
  • chromaffin cells (chroomneerslag - kleur bruin)
zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata
Zona glomerulosa and Zona fasciculata
  • Gigher magnification of the zona glomerulosa and the Zona fasciculata is shown in this photo. Note the many droplets
  • seen in the zona fasciculata cells.
hormone producing cells in organs
Hormone producing cells in organs
  • Gonads
  • liver
  • kidney
  • pancreas
  • thymus
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Exocrine and endocrine gland
  • endocrine portion = islets of Langerhans
  • B cells (70%) - insulin
  • A cells (15-20%) - glucagon
  • D cells (5%) - somatostatin
normal pancreatic islet of langerhans
Normal pancreatic islet of Langerhans
  • Surrounded by normal exocrine pancreatic acinar tissue.
  • Alpha cells secreting glucagon,
  • Beta cells secreting insulin,
  • Delta cells secreting somatostatin.
immunoperoxidase staining can help identify the nature of the cells
Immunoperoxidase staining can help identify the nature of the cells
  • On the right, antibody to insulin- beta cells. On the left, antibody to glucagon - the alpha cells.
leydig cells
Leydig cells
  • Interstitial tissue within the lobuli testis lies between seminiferous tubules. Contains collagenous fubers, blood lymph vessels
  • specific interstitial cells of Leydig
  • Present in groups - large cells cytoplasm spongy in appearance - well developed smooth ER and mitochondria
  • Crystals o Reinke secretes androgens
leydig cells57
Leydig cells
  • Pink Leydig cells are seen here in the interstitium.
  • Note the pale golden brown pigment as well. There is active spermatogenesis.
ovaries background
Ovaries background
  • Progressive development of follicles
  • differentiation of ovum
  • proliferation of follicular cells and organization of stromal cells into a connective tissue sheath
background60
background
  • Flattened follicular cells become cuboidal and then columnar in shape surrounding oogonium
  • follicular cells divide actively to produce a stratified layer around the ovum = stratum granulosum composed of granulosa cells
background61
background
  • Know known as the primordial follicle
  • this is transformed into primary follicle
  • adjacent stroma organizes into capsule = THECA FOLLICULI separated from the stratum granulosum by basal lamina
slide62

Theca interna

vascular

enlarged stromal cells

theca folliculi

differentiates in to the:

Theca externa

fibrous

slide63

Oogonium surrounded by follicular cells that

produce granulosa cells

Primordial follicle

Primary follicle

with theca folliculi

Proliferation of follicular cells - follicle becomes ovoid

stratum granulosum 8 - 12 layers thick

antrum develops

Secondary or antral follicel

Graafian follicle

slide64

After ovulation -

bleeding in cavity of follicle

Wall of follicle collapses -

thrown into folds

Follicular wall -

transformed into temporary glandular structure = corpus lteum

Granulosa cells of the follicle

differentiate into large pale staining cells

GRANULOSA LUTEIN CELLS

slide65

Cells of the theca interna

form

THECA LUTEIN CELLS

recap ovaries
Recap: ovaries
  • Mature follicle - Graafian follicle
  • granulosa cells - granulosa lutein cells after ovulation
  • follicular theca cells - theca lutein cells after ovulation
  • produces estrogen
graafian follicles
Graafian follicles
  • The Graafian follicle is identified by the large antrum (A) and the corona radiata (arrow) that surrounds the actual oocyte and projects into the antrum.
ovaries corpus luteum
Ovaries: corpus luteum
  • corpus luteum lined by luteinized granulosa cells next to the hemorrhagic area at the right.
corpus luteum
Corpus luteum
  • Granulosa cells enlarged- granulosa lutein cells LARGE CELLS
  • follicular theca cells - theca lutein cells - SMALLER CELLS
  • function: PRODUCES PROGESTERONE