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Ch. 22 Ocean Currents. Ocean Currents. Movements of the ocean’s waters in giant “streams” 2 Major Currents : Surface Currents Deep Currents. Surface Currents. Move on or near the surface Driven by winds Factors affecting Surface Currents: Wind Belts Rotational Effects

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ocean currents
Ocean Currents
  • Movements of the ocean’s waters in giant “streams”

2 Major Currents:

    • Surface Currents
    • Deep Currents
surface currents
Surface Currents
  • Move on or near the surface
  • Driven by winds

Factors affecting Surface Currents:

    • Wind Belts
    • Rotational Effects
    • Location of Continents
how do wind belts affect surface ocean currents
How do wind belts affect surface ocean currents?
  • Energy from the movement of both the trade winds and westerlies is transferred to the surface of the ocean.
what are rotational effects and how do they affect ocean surface currents
What are rotational effects and how do they affect ocean surface currents?
  • Coriolis effect: the twisting or deflection of the ocean’s currents due to Earth’s rotation.
    • creates Gyres: large circles of moving water
deep currents
Deep Currents
  • Cold, dense currents that flow very slowly, deep beneath the surface.
how do deep currents form
How do deep Currents form?
  • As cold dense water of the polar regions sinks, it flows beneath warmer ocean waters towards the equators.
  • Movement is caused

by density differences

turbidity currents
Turbidity Currents
  • A strong current caused by an underwater land slide.
22 2 ocean waves
22.2 Ocean Waves
  • Waves: periodic up and down movement of water
slide12

Wave period: time it takes for one complete wavelength to pass a given point

Wave Speed = wavelength

Period

wave energy
Wave energy
  • Waves are caused by a transfer of wind energy to the water

If there were no wind, what would happen to the waves????

So no wind = no wave energy

Add wind = more wave energy

water movement in a wave
Water Movement in a Wave
  • The individual water molecules themselves are moving very little!!!
wave size
Wave Size

Three Factors that affect wave size:

  • Speed of wind
  • Amount of time the wind blows
  • Fetch: distance that the wind blows
waves and the shore
Waves and the Shore
  • Breakers
  • Refraction
waves and the shore1
Waves and the Shore
  • Undertows
  • Rip Currents
22 3 tides
22.3 Tides
  • The daily changes in the levels of the ocean

What causes tides???

The gravitional interactions between the Earth and the Moon!!!

behavior of tides
Behavior of Tides
  • When the earth, moon, and sun are aligned
    • The combined gravitational pull causes the range in tides.
slide22

When the sun and moon are at right angles relative to the earth

    • The gravitational pulls do not act together and the daily tidal range is small
tidal variations
Tidal Variations
  • Influenced by the Ocean Basin’s:
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Depth
    • Location
tidal currents
Tidal Currents
  • Flow of oceans towards and away from coasts as the tides rise and fall.
    • Most influential closer to coastlines
  • Tidal Bore: a surge of water due to tidal currents in a long bay.
the end
The End
  • Ocean Currents Activity