Writing Assessments Webinar Robert W. Frantum-Allen
Objectives • Overview of Writing Assessments • Handwriting • HWT and Checklist • Spelling • Writing CBM
Handwriting with out Tears Memory 1. Omitting the letter/number is a memory error. 2. Writing an unrecognizable letter/number (like a squiggle) is a memory error. 3. Writing the wrong letter/number (lowercase f for capital F or vice versa) is a memory error. 4. Lowercase i, j without the dot is a memory error.
Memory 5. A letter or number that is reversed/backward 6. A letter that uses wrong size - Oo, Ww, Ss 7. A letter in the wrong place - Pp, y
Orientation 8. Reversals, or backward letters are orientation errors. No orientation error for: 9. Symmetrical letters/numbers. They cannot be reversed and are not scored.
Placement 10. A letter/number (or part) that should be on the baseline but is outside the gray area (more than 1/16” above or below the line) is a placement error. a. Letter/number parts that should be on the line but are above the gray area b. Letter/number parts that should be on the line but are below the gray area Note: Measure questionable placement. Line up the 2nd Grade Placement Tool with the writing line (not the letter).
Sentence 11. Not using a capital to begin is a sentence error. 12. Mixing capital and lowercase letters is a sentence error. 13. Putting too much space between letters in a word (w r o n g) is a sentence error. 14. Putting words too close is a sentence error. 15. Forgetting ending punctuation is a sentence error.
Name You will not mark errors for this category. Instead, note the stage of development. Does the student use: - All capitals (CHRIS) - Transitioning mix (ChRis) - Title case (Chris)
Other Concerns Formation- starting at the bottom and moving up Size- too large for grade level Neatness Speed- too slow and too fast Posture- slumped, feed unsupported, Pencil Grip- awkward grip Helper hand- doesn’t use this hand to hold the paper Other- Cognitive concerns
On-line Scoring System http://www.hwtears.com/hwt/online-tools/screener
Handwriting Screening Checklist • Free writing or short constructed writing on single lined paper • Have the student write the capital alphabet, lower case alphabet and the numbers on single lined paper • Dictate to the students the phrase “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.” If the student is too young for dictation, then have them copy the phrase. The phrase contains all the letters of the English alphabet.
Analysis of Spelling Errors Spelling errors are a rich source of information about language processing (Masterson and Apel, 2000) Substitution, omitting or changing the order of sounds in a word Weak phonological skills Strong phonological awareness and having trouble remembering letter and letter patterns. Weak orthographic skills Lacks stable spelling in multiple syllable or multiple morpheme words Weak morphological and/or syllable skills Masterson, J., and Apel, K. (2000) Spelling assessment: charting a path to optimal intervention. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(3), 50-66
Grading a Spelling Inventory Clues about their psychological processing ability and/or instruction received -Emergent to Letter name- possible phonological/orthographic processing errors -Syllable and Affixes and Derivational Relations might hint at lack of morphological and syllable knowledge and might indicate a masked phonological/orthographical processing errors What is their stage of spelling development? -Emergent (Grade pre-k to middle of 1) -Letter Name (Grade K to middle of 2) -Within Word Pattern (Grade 1 to middle of 4) -Syllables and Affixes (Grade 3-8) -Derivational Relations (Grade 5-12) Clues about their psychological processing ability and/or instruction received -After 3rd grade, if more than 50% of the errors are phonological in nature then there might be a possible phonological processing concerns -After 3rd grade, if more than 50% of the errors are orthogprahic with few phonological errors then possible orthographic processing or lack of instruction in spelling -If morpheme spelling are inconsistent then possible lack of instruction in morphology 2. Error Analysis to determine the number of phonological (disphonetic) and/or orthographic errors. -1-3rd grade phonological and orthographic errors are expected based on the instruction and experience of this age group -After 3rd grade phonological errors should be greatly reduced
Directions • give the screeners just like you give a spelling test, however students do not study the words. • say the words two times clearly, without emphasis on a particular sounds or syllable • you do not need to use them in a sentence (we are not looking at their word context skills, just their phonological/orthographic, syllable and morphological skills) • if it looks like a student is stuck at a level, consider stopping but make sure you have enough words to analyze for phonological or orthographic erros.
Determine the Stage of Spelling Development This puts him at the letter name-early stage • for each correct feature • -Circle the incorrect feature • -total only the words asked to spell Final consonant is mostly right Began to make mistakes with short vowels What was the latest skill they got mostly right? When did they start to miss the critical feature?
What does Alan’s spelling inventory tell us… • Most of his errors are orthographic- he doesn’t have a phonological processing problems • The type of orthographic errors are expected for his grade level based on what is expected for 3rd grade according to the state standards • He needs instruction on long vowel spellings, variant vowels, inflectional morphemes and unaccented final syllables
What does Jean’s spelling inventory tell us • For a 5th grader Jean has a profound phonological processing disorder, which is why she is not able to connect phonemes and graphemes • She cannot distinguish long and short vowel sounds and spelling • She might be lacking some instruction beyond the 26 letters of the alphabet, needs instruction in digraphs and vowel teams • Relative strength with consonant blends
TMG Check the grade level expectations to determine is this is a problem Parts of Speech: Knowledge Subject/Predicate Identification: Knowledge Sentence types : Knowledge Sentence Identification: Knowledge Helps to determine what to teach
TMG If there are NO grade level expectations then TEACH IT! CLOZE- hints at a processing disorder Higher-level reasoning: finding evidence, judging perspective, synthesizing or elaboration, having a new idea Self-regulation: revising, employing strategies, setting goals, managing attention, taking perspective of the reader Automatic Pilot
Written Expression CBM • Writing CBM • Total Words Written • Words Spelled Correctly • Correct Writing Sequence • Spelling CBM • Correct Letter Sequence
Writing CBM- • The student is given a writing prompt, one minute to plan and then three minutes to write for the CBM and a chance to finish writing to be graded by a rubric • The student’s writing is scored as total words written, total words spelled correctly and correct writing sequence • Rubric looks at typical writing composition skills and handwriting
Writing CBM: Standard DirectionsHandout: “How to Conduct a Writing CBM” • Provide students with a pencil and piece of lined paper or writing notebook. • Select an appropriate story starter. • Say: “Today I want you to write a story. I am going to read a sentence to you first and then I want you to compose a short story about what happens. You will have 1 minute to think about what you will write and 3 minutes to write your story. Remember to do you best work. If you do not know how to spell a word, you should guess. Are there any questions? Put your pencils down and listen. For the next minute, think about …. (insert your story starter)” • After reading the story starter, begin your stopwatch and allow 1 minute for the student(s) to think. (Monitor student so that they do not begin writing.) After 30 seconds say; “You should be thinking about…(insert your story starter).” At the end of 1 minute restart your stopwatch for 3 minutes and say, “Now begin writing.” • Monitor students’ attention to the task. Encourage student to work if they are not writing. • After 90 seconds say; “You should be writing about … (insert your story starter). • At the end of 3 minutes indicate on the student paper with a ] but allow the student to finish writing. The write CBM will be graded up to the ]. The remainder of the paper will be needed when grading on the writing rubric.
Scoring Writing CBM How to score writing CBM • Count the total number of words written to obtain the total words written (TWW) • Count the total number of words spelled correctly to obtain the words spelled correctly (WSC) score • Count the total number of correct writing sequences (CWS) score
Determining the Total Words Written • Underline any words that are produced in the writing sample (even if the word is misspelled or is a nonsense word). Find the sum the sum of the total words written. • Hyphenated words where each morpheme can stand alone should be counted as a word (mother-in-law = 3 words) • Hyphenated words where each morpheme can’t stand alone should be counted as 1 word (re-evaluation) • Abbreviation: Commonly used abbreviations should be counted as words (Mr., Mrs., T.V.) • Story Titles and Endings that are written in the title or the ending should be counted in the TWW • Numbers and symbols that are not spelled out should NOT be counted as words (5, 31, %, &)
Total Words Written TWW 30
DPS CBM Benchmark Guidelines for SLD Eligibility Determination The score for fall 4th grade was 30 According to the score where did the student fall for TWW for fall 4th grade? • At or Above Benchmark? • Below Benchmark? • Well Below Benchmark?
Determining the Words Spelled Correctly (WSC) • WSC refers to the number of correctly spelled words in the writing sample, REGARDLESS of the context in which they are used. Incorrectly spelled words should be circled. WSC is calculated by subtracting the total number of errors (circled words) from the Total Words Written (TWW)
Determining the Words Spelled Correctly (WSC) • Abbreviations must be spelled correctly • Each Morpheme counted individually in a hyphenated word must be spelled correctly. If the morpheme cannot stand alone and part of that word is spelled incorrectly, the entire word is counted as incorrect. • Titles and endings should be counted in the WSC • Capitalization rules: Proper nouns must be capitalized unless that word is also a common noun. Capitalization of the first word in the sentence is not required for the word to be spelled correctly. Others words are counted as correct even if they are capitalized incorrectly within the writing sample • Letters that have been written reversed are not counted as errors unless the reversal causes the word to be spelled incorrectly (p, q, d, b, n, u) • Contractions are counted as WSC as long as the apostrophe is in the correct place
Words Spelled Correctly 30-7=23 WSC
DPS CBM Benchmark Guidelines for SLD Eligibility Determination The score for fall 4th grade was 23 According to the score where did the student fall for WSC for fall 4th grade? • At or Above Benchmark? • Below Benchmark? • Well Below Benchmark?
Determining the Correct Writing Sequence (CWS) • A correct Writing Sequence (CWS) is a pair of adjacent, correctly spelled words that are acceptable within the context of the written phrase. CWS takes into account punctuation, syntax, semantics, spelling, and capitalization. When scoring CWS, a caret (^) is used to mark each correct word sequence. A space is implied at the beginning of the sentence. • Place a caret (^) between words that are (1)mechanically (spelled correctly, appropriate capitalization, (2) semantically, and (3) syntactically correct; calculate the sum of the number of carets = CWS • There are many rules for CWS! Please refer to page 3 and 4 in the How to Conduct a Writing CBM (yellow) handout
Determining the Correct Writing Sequence (CWS) ^The ^dog ^is ^big. ^ CWS=5 Perfect ^The ^dog ^is ^big CWS=4 Punctuation is missing the ^dog ^is ^big. ^ CWS=4 Missing capitalization
Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Spelling: Words must be spelled correctly CWS 8 CWS 3
Rules for ScoringSee Handout for Details • Capitalization: Beginning of sentences, proper nouns counted, incorrectly capitalized are incorrect CWS 5 CWS 3 CWS 3