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Module 2: The Operational Environment

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  1. Module 2: The Operational Environment

  2. Terminal Objective Upon completion of this module, students will be able to describe the US&R operations in a contaminated environment.

  3. Enabling Objectives: • 2-1 Discuss prior Terrorist Events • 2-2 Describe the Hazards and Properties of Chemical Agents • 2-3 Describe the Hazards and Properties of Biological Agents

  4. Enabling Objectives (cont) • 2-4 Describe the Hazards and Properties of Radiological Materials • 2-5 Describe the Hazards of Nuclear Events • 2-6 Describe the Hazards of Incendiaries/ Explosives

  5. Overview • Terrorist activities • CBRNE Events that we may respond to • Situational Awareness

  6. Ahmed Ressam Bin Laden Benjamin Smith Richard Reid Bagwan Shree Rajneesh Timothy McVeigh Buford O. Furrow Jr. Theodore Kazyinski Shokoro Ashahara Eric Robert Rudolph

  7. Times Square Bomb 5-1-2010

  8. Virginia Tech

  9. Oklahoma City

  10. Madrid

  11. London

  12. Anarchists Leaderless Resistance Right-Wing Racist Skinheads Aryan Movement Environmental Nationalist Al Qaeda

  13. Terrorism Is and always has been . . . a form of warfare.

  14. CASUALTY-PRODUCING ABILITIES Selective Targets

  15. Terrorism Both the target and the type of weapon used are chosen for a purpose.

  16. Psychological Effects

  17. Achieving victory in every battle is not absolute perfection; neutralizing an adversary’s force without battle is absolute perfection. --Sun Tzu, The Art of War

  18. Threat Levels Imminent Threat Alert Warns of a credible, specific, and impending terrorist threat against the United States. Elevated Threat Alert Warns of a credible terrorist threat against the United States.

  19. US&R Operations in the CBRNE Environment • Chemical • Biological • Radiological • Nuclear • Explosive

  20. TF Members Actions • Recognize • Signs • Symptoms • Indicators • Avoid • Isolate • Notify

  21. Emergency Considerations Thermal Radiological Asphyxiation Chemical Etiological Mechanical Psychological Distance Time Shielding

  22. Chemical Agents • Categories of chemical agents • Evaluating signs/indicators • Influencing factors

  23. Categories of Chemical Agents • Nerve agents • Blister agents • Choking agents • Blood agents • Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) • Irritants

  24. Nerve Agent Signs and Symptoms • S-Salivation, Secretion, Sweating, Seizure • L-Lacrimation • U-Urination • D- Defecation, Diarrhea • G- Gastrointestinal • E-Emesis • M-Miosis (Pinpointing of pupils)

  25. Nerve Agent Signs and Symptoms • D- Diaphoresis, Diarrhea • U- Urination • M- Miosis (Pinpointing of pupils) • B- Bradycardia, Bronchorrhea,Bronchospasm • E - Emesis • L- Lacrimation • S- Salavation, Secretion, Sweating, Seizure

  26. Blister Agents Signs and Symptoms • Red burning skin and blisters • Sore throat and dry cough • Pulmonary edema • Memory loss • Coma and seizures • Some symptoms may be delayed for 2 - 24 hours

  27. Choking Agents Signs and Symptoms • Eye and airway irritation • Dizziness • Nausea • Headache • Painful cough • Tightness in chest • Pulmonary edema

  28. Blood Agents Signs and Symptoms • Dilated pupils • Rapid breathing and dizziness • Nausea, excessive salivation, and vomiting • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage • Convulsions • Pulmonary edema • Cherry red skin/lips • Respiratory arrest

  29. Chemical Agents • Influencing factors • Weather • Terrain • Behavior of Chemical

  30. Chemical Detection and Monitoring • Multiple devices check various agents • Various requirements M256A1 Kit LCD 3.3 Draeger CDS

  31. Chemical Detection and Monitoring MultiRae MultiRae Pro AreaRAE Gamma Steel RAELink 2 RDK Host Controller RAELink 3

  32. Biological Agents • Protecting yourself against biological agents • Meteorological considerations

  33. Disseminating Biological Agents • Ingestion • Dermal exposure • Vectors • Aerosol

  34. Biological Reference Chart (Appendix C-9) Agent Persistency Dissemination Transmission (person to person) Incubation Lethality Anthrax Spores remain viable in soil for years Spores in aerosol No (except cutaneous) 1-5 days High Cholera Unstable in aerosols and water Ingestion and aerosol Rare 12 hours to 6 days Low with treatment Plague 1 year in soil; 270 days in bodies Aerosol High 1-3 days High if untreated Tularemia Months in moist soil Aerosol No 1-10 days Moderate if untreated Q Fever Months Ingestion and aerosol Rare 14-16 days Very low

  35. Biological Reference Chart (Appendix C-9) Agent Persistency Dissemination Transmission (person to person) Incubation Lethality Smallpox Very stable Aerosol High 10-12 days Low VEE Unstable Aerosol and infected vectors Low 1-6 days Low Ebola Unstable Contact and aerosol Moderate 4-16 days Moderate to high

  36. Biological Reference Chart (Appendix C-9) Agent Persistency Dissemination Transmission (person to person) Incubation Lethality Botulinum Toxin Weeks Ingestion and aerosol No Hours to days High T-2 Mycotoxins Years Ingestion and aerosol No 2-4 hours Moderate Ricin Stable Ingestion and aerosol No Hours to days High Staphylococal Enterotoxin B Resistant to freezing Ingestion and aerosol No Hours <1%

  37. Introduction to Radiation • Review of Ionizing Radiation • Review or Introduction to Dosimetry • Deployment of the UltraRadiac • Responding to a Dosimeter Alarm

  38. Nuclear/Radiological Incident General Information • Radiation can be detected with meters • Unlikely to find high levels distant from the source • Use meters to determine isolation area • Victims should not be sick or symptomatic on the scene • Exposure only does not require immediate gross decontamination

  39. Types of Ionizing Radiation Provided by the Department of Energy, NsTec

  40. Potential Radioactive Sources • Use of radiological material in a terrorist attack. • Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) • Radiological Exposure Device (RED) • Radiopharmaceuticals used in medicine • Industrial sources • Naturally occurring

  41. Nuclear/Radiological Incident • Time, distance, and shielding are appropriate self-protective measures • Equipment Pancake Detector RadWatch Dosimeter Canberra UltraRadiac RadiationMonitor FLIR nanoRaider Ludlum Response Kit

  42. Dosimetry

  43. Radwatch • You will be issued a radwatch at the time of deployment. • The radwatch will measure your radiation absorbed dose during the deployment and must be worn entire time. • The radwatch may be read during the deployment if needed.

  44. Units of Measure Roentgen (R) – ionization of air by radiation energy R per hour (R/hr) is used on radiation survey meters Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) – a unit for measuring absorbed dose in any material

  45. Units of Measure For gamma and x ray radiation, a common “conversion factor” between exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent is: 1 R = 1 rad = 1 rem

  46. Dosimetry:Comparison of Doses