Module 2: The Operational Environment
Terminal Objective Upon completion of this module, students will be able to describe the US&R operations in a contaminated environment.
Enabling Objectives: • 2-1 Discuss prior Terrorist Events • 2-2 Describe the Hazards and Properties of Chemical Agents • 2-3 Describe the Hazards and Properties of Biological Agents
Enabling Objectives (cont) • 2-4 Describe the Hazards and Properties of Radiological Materials • 2-5 Describe the Hazards of Nuclear Events • 2-6 Describe the Hazards of Incendiaries/ Explosives
Overview • Terrorist activities • CBRNE Events that we may respond to • Situational Awareness
Ahmed Ressam Bin Laden Benjamin Smith Richard Reid Bagwan Shree Rajneesh Timothy McVeigh Buford O. Furrow Jr. Theodore Kazyinski Shokoro Ashahara Eric Robert Rudolph
Anarchists Leaderless Resistance Right-Wing Racist Skinheads Aryan Movement Environmental Nationalist Al Qaeda
Terrorism Is and always has been . . . a form of warfare.
CASUALTY-PRODUCING ABILITIES Selective Targets
Terrorism Both the target and the type of weapon used are chosen for a purpose.
Achieving victory in every battle is not absolute perfection; neutralizing an adversary’s force without battle is absolute perfection. --Sun Tzu, The Art of War
Threat Levels Imminent Threat Alert Warns of a credible, specific, and impending terrorist threat against the United States. Elevated Threat Alert Warns of a credible terrorist threat against the United States.
US&R Operations in the CBRNE Environment • Chemical • Biological • Radiological • Nuclear • Explosive
TF Members Actions • Recognize • Signs • Symptoms • Indicators • Avoid • Isolate • Notify
Emergency Considerations Thermal Radiological Asphyxiation Chemical Etiological Mechanical Psychological Distance Time Shielding
Chemical Agents • Categories of chemical agents • Evaluating signs/indicators • Influencing factors
Categories of Chemical Agents • Nerve agents • Blister agents • Choking agents • Blood agents • Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) • Irritants
Nerve Agent Signs and Symptoms • S-Salivation, Secretion, Sweating, Seizure • L-Lacrimation • U-Urination • D- Defecation, Diarrhea • G- Gastrointestinal • E-Emesis • M-Miosis (Pinpointing of pupils)
Nerve Agent Signs and Symptoms • D- Diaphoresis, Diarrhea • U- Urination • M- Miosis (Pinpointing of pupils) • B- Bradycardia, Bronchorrhea,Bronchospasm • E - Emesis • L- Lacrimation • S- Salavation, Secretion, Sweating, Seizure
Blister Agents Signs and Symptoms • Red burning skin and blisters • Sore throat and dry cough • Pulmonary edema • Memory loss • Coma and seizures • Some symptoms may be delayed for 2 - 24 hours
Choking Agents Signs and Symptoms • Eye and airway irritation • Dizziness • Nausea • Headache • Painful cough • Tightness in chest • Pulmonary edema
Blood Agents Signs and Symptoms • Dilated pupils • Rapid breathing and dizziness • Nausea, excessive salivation, and vomiting • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage • Convulsions • Pulmonary edema • Cherry red skin/lips • Respiratory arrest
Chemical Agents • Influencing factors • Weather • Terrain • Behavior of Chemical
Chemical Detection and Monitoring • Multiple devices check various agents • Various requirements M256A1 Kit LCD 3.3 Draeger CDS
Chemical Detection and Monitoring MultiRae MultiRae Pro AreaRAE Gamma Steel RAELink 2 RDK Host Controller RAELink 3
Biological Agents • Protecting yourself against biological agents • Meteorological considerations
Disseminating Biological Agents • Ingestion • Dermal exposure • Vectors • Aerosol
Biological Reference Chart (Appendix C-9) Agent Persistency Dissemination Transmission (person to person) Incubation Lethality Anthrax Spores remain viable in soil for years Spores in aerosol No (except cutaneous) 1-5 days High Cholera Unstable in aerosols and water Ingestion and aerosol Rare 12 hours to 6 days Low with treatment Plague 1 year in soil; 270 days in bodies Aerosol High 1-3 days High if untreated Tularemia Months in moist soil Aerosol No 1-10 days Moderate if untreated Q Fever Months Ingestion and aerosol Rare 14-16 days Very low
Biological Reference Chart (Appendix C-9) Agent Persistency Dissemination Transmission (person to person) Incubation Lethality Smallpox Very stable Aerosol High 10-12 days Low VEE Unstable Aerosol and infected vectors Low 1-6 days Low Ebola Unstable Contact and aerosol Moderate 4-16 days Moderate to high
Biological Reference Chart (Appendix C-9) Agent Persistency Dissemination Transmission (person to person) Incubation Lethality Botulinum Toxin Weeks Ingestion and aerosol No Hours to days High T-2 Mycotoxins Years Ingestion and aerosol No 2-4 hours Moderate Ricin Stable Ingestion and aerosol No Hours to days High Staphylococal Enterotoxin B Resistant to freezing Ingestion and aerosol No Hours <1%
Introduction to Radiation • Review of Ionizing Radiation • Review or Introduction to Dosimetry • Deployment of the UltraRadiac • Responding to a Dosimeter Alarm
Nuclear/Radiological Incident General Information • Radiation can be detected with meters • Unlikely to find high levels distant from the source • Use meters to determine isolation area • Victims should not be sick or symptomatic on the scene • Exposure only does not require immediate gross decontamination
Types of Ionizing Radiation Provided by the Department of Energy, NsTec
Potential Radioactive Sources • Use of radiological material in a terrorist attack. • Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) • Radiological Exposure Device (RED) • Radiopharmaceuticals used in medicine • Industrial sources • Naturally occurring
Nuclear/Radiological Incident • Time, distance, and shielding are appropriate self-protective measures • Equipment Pancake Detector RadWatch Dosimeter Canberra UltraRadiac RadiationMonitor FLIR nanoRaider Ludlum Response Kit
Radwatch • You will be issued a radwatch at the time of deployment. • The radwatch will measure your radiation absorbed dose during the deployment and must be worn entire time. • The radwatch may be read during the deployment if needed.
Units of Measure Roentgen (R) – ionization of air by radiation energy R per hour (R/hr) is used on radiation survey meters Radiation Absorbed Dose (Rad) – a unit for measuring absorbed dose in any material
Units of Measure For gamma and x ray radiation, a common “conversion factor” between exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent is: 1 R = 1 rad = 1 rem