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Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults. Lesa Lorenzen Huber Indiana University. Introduction . Activities and lifestyle provide the ebb and flow of life. In this session we will: explore current patterns of activities and lifestyle in later life

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activities and lifestyle patterns of older adults

Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Lesa Lorenzen Huber

Indiana University

introduction
Introduction

Activities and lifestyle provide the ebb and flow of life. In this session we will:

  • explore current patterns of activities and lifestyle in later life
  • consider future trends: what activities are the boomers likely to participate in?
  • consider the implications for the effects of air pollution on the health of older

adults.

what are the kinds of activities people do
What are the kinds of activities people do?
  • Activities can be categorized as core activities or balance activities
  • Core activities tend to persist throughout life (e.g. time with family, personal care, reading)
  • Balance activities are related more to personal identity, life

course stages, and roles

(e.g. outdoor recreation,

travel, and sports)

what are the kinds of activities people do1
What are the kinds of activities people do?
  • The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) categorizes activities as obligatory, committed, or discretionary activities
  • Obligatory: personal care, sleep, etc.
  • Committed: paid work,

housework, etc.

  • Discretionary:

socializing, hobbies, etc.

legend of symbols slides 8 12
Legend of SymbolsSlides 8-12
  • 1960’s men (no data for women)
  • 1970s men
  • 1970s women
  • 1980s men
  • 1980s women
  • 1990s men
  • 1990s women
findings from national time studies 60 s 70 s and 90 s
Findings from National Time Studies, 60’s, 70’s and 90’s
  • Decreasing work time for paid employees overall but increasing work time for women
  • Decreasing family care by women
  • Increasing family care by men
  • Sharp increases in total leisure (mass media, adult education, recreation)
  • Decreases in some forms of leisure (visiting and other informal social life)
summary of blsa findings
Summary of BLSA Findings
  • Older adults spend the most time on obligatory and passive leisure
  • They spend the least time on committed activities and active leisure.
  • Time spent on paid work has increased for women, while time spent on housework has decreased
  • Men have decreased time spent on paid work and increased time spent on housework
activity participation findings from blsa since 1996
Activity Participation Findings From BLSA Since 1996
  • Increase in medium-high intensity leisure activity participation for men, no change for women.
  • No change in moderate intensity activity participation for men or women
  • Decrease in number of

sedentary men, no

change for women

what explains the changes in activity participation as people age
What explains the changes in activity participation as people age?
  • People generally reduce the number of activities they engage in and the amount of time they spend on each activity.
  • Carstensen defines this narrowing as increasing selectivity of activities that are found to be meaningful, rather than seeing this change as

disengagement from

society.

summary aarp 2002 study of funstyles of adults
Summary: AARP 2002 Study of “Funstyles” of Adults
  • Most of adults’ discretionary time is spent at or near home
  • Most activities are low intensity
  • The relative order and priorities of what Americans consider “fun” has not changed from 01-02
  • Some changes from 01-02

may be due to “seasonality”

and slight malaise from

September 11.

another explanation for the changes in activity participation as people age
Another explanation for the changes in activity participation as people age

A Continuum of Expressive Involvement Intensity

  • Find the last page of your handouts
  • Identify your age cohort at the top of the page
  • Rank the three things that you do most often
  • Rank the three things that you do least often
  • Compare rankings with two people near you
summary gordon gaitz and scott leisure participation as a function of increased age
Summary: Gordon, Gaitz, and Scott: Leisure participation as a function of increased age
  • There is a decrease in activities that are outside the home
  • There is a decrease in activities that are physically demanding.
summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults
  • Most changes in activities with age are gradual. There is increasing selectivity of most meaningful activities.
  • Older people are more likely to be involved in sedentary activities than younger people. (e.g. TV, visiting, reading)
  • Older people spend more time on all activities of daily living than younger people. (e.g. sleep, rest, eating, shopping, health care)
summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults1
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Changes in activities with age

  • Decrease in activities that are highly active, external to the home, and physically demanding
  • Increase in home-centered sociability and media-based symbolic interaction
summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults2
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Gender affects activity patterns and lifestyle.

  • Men do more household and yard maintenance, and are more likely to work outside the home
  • Men increase participation in home-based activities with increasing age
  • Women do more housework, child care, volunteer work, and participate in more voluntary associations
  • Women increase participation in

solitary activities

summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults3
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Activity and lifestyle patterns are affected by racial and ethnic status

  • African Americans are more likely to be involved in church related activities, but less likely to be involved in other activities.
  • Hispanic and Italian elders are more likely to be involved in family-related activities than English or Scandinavians.
  • Today’s elders of color have a experienced a

lifetime of discrimination and may perceive

barriers to participation in many leisure

activities

summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults4
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Activity and lifestyle patterns are affected by socioeconomic status

  • Higher income people are more likely to be involved in a wider range of activities.
  • Higher and middle income people are more likely to be involved in sports, reading, clubs, and gardening.
  • Lower income people are more inclined to visiting with family and friends, crafts, and television.
summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults5
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Activity and lifestyle patterns are affected by socioeconomic status (continued)

  • Middle-class more community oriented
  • Working and lower class more home centered
  • Socioeconomic differences in activity participation are mostly due to the cost of pursuing the activity, not socioeconomic differences.
  • Reduction in income in later life

leads to barriers in community

involvement

summary activity and lifestyle patterns of older adults6
Summary: Activity and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Changes in leisure are affected by health and mobility. The following activities show decreases in participation:

  • Clubs
  • Church activities
  • Libraries
  • Restaurants
  • Parks
  • Recreation Centers
  • Sporting Events
  • Visiting
future trends aging in place
Future Trends: Aging in Place
  • “Aging in Place” will become even more viable than today, with technologies making homes “smarter.”
  • Smart homes may be limited to those that can afford it.
  • Those that are financially able to buy LTC insurance will have more lifestyle options.
  • Those with limited financial resources will face shrinking options available through Medicaid.
  • There may be an ever-increasing gap in lifestyles between those with and without financial resources
future trends migration
Future Trends: Migration
  • Larger numbers of older adults will live in suburbs, fewer in central cities
  • Services will continue to re-locate to the suburbs
  • Boomers will feel confident about re-locating, especially to small towns, rural communities, or other countries
  • Boomers are more likely to choose independent housing in communities than large isolated retirement communities
future trends migration dream towns for baby boomers
Future Trends: MigrationDream Towns for Baby Boomers

1. Loveland/Fort Collins, Colorado

2. Bellingham, Washington

3. Raleigh/Durham/Chapel Hill, North Carolina

4. Sarasota, Florida

5. Fayetteville, Arkansas

slide38
6. Charleston, South Carolina

7. Asheville, North Carolina

8. San Diego, California

9. San Antonio, Texas

10. Santa Fe, New Mexico

11. Gainesville, Florida

12. Iowa City, Iowa

13. Portsmouth, New Hampshire

14. Spokane, Washington

15. Ashland, Oregon

future trends leisure and physical activity participation
Future Trends: Leisure and Physical Activity Participation
  • Between 1988 and 1995 there was an 18% increase in sport, fitness, and outdoor activities and a 21% increase in fitness-specific activities in the baby boom population
  • Boomers are very likely to carry their orientation toward fitness into retirement
  • There may be a high demand for recreational resources and pressure for access to competitive and high-risk sports from baby boomers as they retire
  • The high level of educational attainment among baby boomers may affect what types of leisure activities they prefer
  • Research suggests that higher levels of education are correlated with larger leisure repertoires.
future trends predictions of leisure opportunities dychtwald
Future Trends: Predictions of Leisure Opportunities (Dychtwald)
  • “Retirement Zone” stores
  • Adventure travel services
  • Apprenticeships
  • Use of “experience agents”
  • Mature “escorts”
  • Mature dating

services

summary activities and lifestyle patterns of older adults
Summary: Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults
  • Individuals vary more from each other than they vary as they age. Change within an individual is gradual
  • Most of adults’ discretionary time is spent at or near home
  • Activities that are most essential and universal, and those with the lowest physical and mental demands, take up a larger fraction of older persons’ days
summary activities and lifestyle patterns of older adults1
Summary : Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults
  • Adults are increasingly selective toward meaningful activities as they age
  • The relative order and priorities of what Americans consider “fun” has not changed from 01-02
  • Longitudinal changes mirror cross-sectional changes, except that women have increased paid work involvement as they age and younger women have decreased the amount of time spent in housework
summary future trends
Summary: Future Trends
  • People are approaching later life better educated, better financially prepared, and in better health
  • Technology will enable people to “age in place” in their homes
  • Boomers are likely to remain in suburbs or relocate to small towns
  • Boomers may have

higher participation

rates in sports, exercise,

and fitness

slide46
Effects of Air Pollution on the Health of Older Adults AND Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults
  • How might these activity patterns interact with air pollution and health effects?
  • Other comments or questions?
activities and lifestyle patterns of older adults1
Activities and Lifestyle Patterns of Older Adults

Lesa Lorenzen Huber

Center on Aging and Aged

Indiana University

lehuber@indiana.edu

slide48
AARP. (2002). 2002 Update: A survey of adults funstyles. AARP Knowledge Management. Washington, DC: AARP. Retrieved on 6/3/05 from http://www.aarp.org/research/family/lifestyles/aresearch-import-782.html

AARP. (2003). AARP The Magazine Names the 15 Best Places to Reinvent Your Life. AARP Magazine, April 1, 2003. Retrieved on 6/3/05 from http://www.aarp.org/research/family/lifestyles/a2003-06-02-nr040103.html

Atchley, R. and Barusch, A. (2004). Social forces and aging: An introduction to social gerontology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Calasanti, T. and Slevin, T. (2001). Gender, social inequalities, and aging. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press

slide49
Dychtwald, K. (1999). AgePower: How the 21st century will be ruled by the new old. New York, NY: Putnam Press

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2004). Older Americans 2004: Key indicators of well-being. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Gordon, C., Gaitz, C. and Scott, J. (1976).Leisure and lives: Personal expressivity across the lifespan. In Binstock, R., and Shanas, E. (Eds). Handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 314.

Hooyman, N. and Kiyak, H.A. (2005). Social gerontology: A multidisciplinary perspective. Boston, MA: Pearson Education

slide50
MacNeil, R. (2001). Bob Dylan and the baby boomer generation: The times they are a’changin’---again. Aging, Activities, and Adaptation. 25 (3-4). 45-58.

Paul, P. (2003). Targeting boomers. American demographics. 25 (2), 24-26

Talbot, L. A., Fleg, J. L., and Metter, E. J.: Secular trends in leisure-time physical activity in men and women across four decades. Prev Med 37: 52-60, 2003.

Verbrugge, L, Gruber-Baldini, A., and Fozard, J. (1996). Age differences and age changes in activities: Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Journal of Gerontology, 51 (1), S30-S41.