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Question of the Day DEC 20. A nucleotide does not contain A. a 5-C sugar B. polymerase C. a nitrogenous base D. a phosphate group. DO NOW DEC 20. How is genetic information stored within our cells?. DO NOW ANSWERED DEC 20. Humans have 46 chromosomes.

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Question of the day dec 20
Question of the Day DEC 20

  • A nucleotide does not contain

  • A. a 5-C sugar

  • B. polymerase

  • C. a nitrogenous base

  • D. a phosphate group

Do now dec 20

  • How is genetic information stored within our cells?

Do now answered dec 20

  • Humans have 46 chromosomes.

  • Chromosomes are made of DNA.

  • Each chromosome contains genes that code for specific traits.

  • Genetic Blueprints.

Agenda dec 20

  • Big Question: What did scientists discover about the relationship between genes and DNA?

  • 1. DO NOW

  • 2. The discovery of DNA

  • 3. Early Experiments

  • 4. Closing Thoughts and Review

  • 5. HOMEWORK: READ Section 12-2 and Guided Reading Questions

Decoding our genes
Decoding our Genes

  • We use letters, punctuation, and symbols to form words, write, and communicate.

  • salalekcyjna

  • What do these letters mean?

Decoding our genes1
Decoding our Genes

  • “Class room” in Polish

  • Words do not have meaning to us unless we can understand the language.

Question of the day dec 23
Question of the DAY DEC 23

  • In prokaryotes, DNA molecules are located in the

  • A. ribosomes

  • B. nucleus

  • C. cytoplasm

  • D. mitochondria

Agenda dec 23

  • Big Question: What did scientists discover about existence of DNA?

  • 1. Question of the DAY

  • 2. The discovery of DNA

  • 3. Early Experiments


  • 5. Closing Thoughts and Review

The universal language of life
The Universal Language of Life

  • In this chapter, we will explore…

  • Early scientific research leading to the discovery of DNA.

  • The processes responsible for copying DNA and protein synthesis.

    • Replication

    • Transcription

    • Translation

12 1 discovering dna
12-1: Discovering DNA

  • Frederick Griffith (1928)

    • tried to find better ways to fight pneumonia

    • isolated 2 types of bacteria that cause pneumonia

      • smooth: deadly form

      • rough: nondeadly form

Griffith s experiment
Griffith’s Experiment

  • R-strain (Rough): Nonvirulent

  • S-strain (Smooth): Virulent

  • Heat Killed S-Strain: Nonvirulent

  • R-strain + Heat Killed S-strain: ???

What killed the mouse
What killed the mouse?

  • Why did the R-strain and heat killed S-strain combination kill the mouse?


  • when one type of bacteria is changed into another

  • realized some molecule changed harmless rough bacteria into deadly smooth bacteria

Question of the day jan 2
Question of the DAY Jan 2

  • The process that changes one strain of bacteria into another strain is called

  • A. Transcription

  • B. Translation

  • C. Transformation

  • D. Replication

Do now jan 2
DO NOW Jan 2

  • Cross a heterozygous long clawed, homozygous dominant spotted coat jaguar with a short clawed, black coat jaguar.

  • What are the chances of having a short-clawed, spotted coat jaguar?

  • SAMPLE TEST Question

  • 4 minutes to solve this problem. GO!

Agenda jan 2

  • BIG Question: What is the relationship between genes and DNA?

  • 1. Question and DO NOW

  • 2. Finish Section 12-1 History of DNA/Experiments

  • 3. Critical Thinking Response

  • 4. Review and HOMEWORK: Guided Reading Packet 12-2

  • 5. History of DNA Quiz on MONDAY Jan 6

Oswald avery 1944

wanted to find out which molecule caused transformation

found transformation was blocked when DNA was destroyed

concluded genes are made up of DNA

Oswald Avery (1944)

Dna is the transforming factor
DNA is the Transforming Factor

  • Avery’s Experiment

  • Treated the R-strain and heat killed S-strain bacteria with enzymes designed to destroy proteins and DNA.

  • Proteins were destroyed → mouse died

  • DNA was destroyed → mouse lived

Hershey and chase 1952

used bacteriophages: type of virus that infects bacteria

contains protein and DNA

used radioactive isotopes

Hershey and Chase (1952)

Hershey and chase s results
Hershey and Chase’s Results

  • used radioactive isotopes to label the DNA and protein in a bacteriophage

  • labeled DNA with phosphorus-32

  • labeled protein with sulfur-35

  • allowed bacteriophage to infect a bacterium

  • found bacterium was made radioactive by phosphorus-32

  • concluded genetic material of bacteriophage must be DNA

Hershey and chase animation
Hershey and Chase Animation


Chapter 12 1 quiz jan 6
Chapter 12-1: Quiz Jan 6

  • History of DNA QUIZ

  • You have 15 minutes to complete the quiz.

Agenda jan 6

  • Big Question: How did the work of early scientists lead to the discovery of DNA?

  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW

  • 2. Structure of DNA

  • 3. Review chromatin and chromosomes

  • 4. Chargaff, Franklin, Watson and Crick

  • 5. Closing Thoughts and Review

12 2 dna structure and replication


deoxyribonucleic acid

made of polymers of nucleotides, which have three parts

phosphate group

nitrogenous base

5-carbon sugar: deoxyribose

12-2: DNA Structure and Replication

Dna and chromosomes

genetic information is on chromosomes

chromosomes made up of chromatin

chromatin consists of DNA and protein

histones: class of proteins that bind directly to DNA

form tiny particles called nucleosomes

help to unfold and package DNA

DNA and Chromosomes

Types of nucleotides
Types of Nucleotides

  • adenine (A)

  • cytosine (C)

  • guanine (G)

  • thymine (T)

  • nucleotides are different because of the base they contain

Chargaff s rules 1950
Chargaff’s Rules (1950)

  • amounts of adenine and thymine were the same

  • amounts of cytosine and guanine were the same

Rosalind franklin 1951
Rosalind Franklin (1951)

  • used x-ray diffraction: when an x-ray beam is aimed at a sample and is then scattered and recorded on film

  • unlocked clues to DNA structure

Rosalind franklin the unsung hero
Rosalind FranklinThe Unsung Hero


Watson and crick

created a model for the structure of DNA

contained two strands

twisted like a helix

double helix

bonds between nitrogenous bases hold strands together

base pairs



strands are complimentary

Watson and Crick

Question of the day jan 7
Question of the DAY Jan 7

  • Hershey and Chase labeled proteins of bacteriophages with

  • A. Phosphorus 32

  • B. Phosphorus 35

  • C. Sulfur 32

  • D. Sulfur 35

Do now jan 7
DO NOW Jan 7

  • How are our cells similar to a library?

Do now answered jan 7

  • Our cells store genetic information in our chromosomes.

  • Chromosomes are similar to bookshelves.

  • The genes found on our chromosomes are like books on a shelf.

  • Each gene is organized on a specific chromosome.

  • Information on genes are read by the cell much like we would read a book.

Agenda jan 7

  • Big Question: How did the work of early scientists lead to the discovery of DNA?

  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW

  • 2. Hand in your homework

  • 3. Franklin, Watson, and Crick

  • 4. DNA Replication

  • 5. Closing Thoughts and Review


  • Process in which DNA is copied

  • Molecule separates into two strands.

  • Each template strand produces a new complementary strand.

  • Requires DNA Polymerase

Dna replication
DNA Replication

  • Double helix structure explained how DNA is copied.

  • Each strand contains all of the information needed to construct the other half.

  • Rules of base pairing: A = T

  • G = C

Dna polymerase
DNA Polymerase

  • Enzyme that joins individual nucleotides together to produce a DNA molecule.

  • “Proofreads” new DNA strands for errors.

  • Copy the following strand of DNA


Question of the day jan 8
Question of the DAY Jan 8

  • Which pair of molecules are necessary for DNA replication?

  • A. Rubisco and Chlorophyll

  • B. Helicase and RNA Polymerase

  • C. DNA Polymerase and RNA Polymerase

  • D. DNA Polymerase and Helicase

Do now jan 8
DO NOW Jan 8

  • Explain how 6 feet of DNA can be packed into the nucleus of a microscopic cell.

Do now answered jan 8

  • DNA is packed into our cells as chromatin.

  • Special proteins called histones bind to the DNA molecules.

  • Particles called nucleosomes are formed with histones which help to tightly coil up DNA…. Supercoiling

Agenda jan 8

  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW

  • 2. Finish Creating your Code Activity

    • Work on Guided reading Packet 12-2

  • 3. What is RNA? Section 12-3

  • 4. Transcription

  • 5. Closing Thoughts and Homework

Dna replication1
DNA Replication

  • A DNA molecule has 2 strands.

  • 5 - 3 strand

  • 3 - 5 strand

  • Each new strand copied is complementary to its parent (template) strand.

Replication in organisms
Replication in Organisms



Occurs in many different places along DNA molecule

Proceeds in two directions

Copies entire chromosome

In what part of the cell does replication occur?

  • Starts at a single point

  • Two directions

  • Copies entire chromosome

  • In what part of the cell does replication occur?

12 3 rna

decodes the genetic information in DNA

also a nucleic acid

differs from DNA in 3 ways

sugar is ribose


contains uracil (U) instead of thymine

12-3: RNA


process by which mRNA molecules are made

DNA is a template for mRNA

RNA polymerase: an enzyme that binds directly to a molecule of DNA

produces a strand of RNA


begins and stops transcription at special start and stop sequences on the DNA


Question of the day jan 9
Question of the DAY Jan 9

  • During DNA Replication, a template strand is also known as a

  • A. complementary strand

  • B. copied strand

  • C. sister strand

  • D. parent strand

Do now jan 9
DO NOW Jan 9

  • 1. Copy the following strand of DNA…

  • A T T G G C T C C A T G C

  • 2. Transcribe your copied strand from #1.

Do now answered jan 9

  • Replication

  • 1. A T T G G C T C C A T G C

  • T A A C C G A G G T A C G

  • Transcription

  • 2. T A A C C G A G G T A C G

  • A U U G G C U C C A U G C

Agenda jan 9

  • BIG Question: How are proteins made using RNA?

  • 1. DO NOW

  • 2. RNA, Translation, and Protein Synthesis

  • 3. Transcription/Translation Problems

  • 4. Review Key Concepts and Homework

Forms of rna

mRNA: messenger RNA

carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into polypeptides

rRNA: ribosomal RNA

makes up ribosomes where proteins are made

tRNA: transfer RNA transfers one amino acid after another to the ribosome

Forms of RNA

Genes in pieces

mRNA is edited

parts are discarded called introns

exons: remaining parts that get spliced together and are expressed

Genes in Pieces

Genetic code
Genetic Code

  • amino acids make up polypeptides which make up proteins

    • order of amino acids determine protein

    • instructions in DNA specify the order the amino acids are put together

    • called the genetic code

Decoding the genetic code

nucleotides in mRNA can code for 20 different amino acids

read in groups of three called codons – three nucleotides that specify a specific amino acid

mRNA sequence  AAACACGGU

read as 3 codons  AAA-CAC-GGU

Each codon 

amino acid lysine-histidine-glycine

Decoding the Genetic Code


more than one codon can specify the same amino acid

AUG codon

start signal or initiator codon

codes for methionine, which is the first amino acid

UAA, UAG, UGA codons

stop signals


Question of the day jan 10
Question of the Day Jan 10

  • Which type of RNA is responsible for the assembly of amino acids into a polypeptide?

  • A. tRNA

  • B. rRNA

  • C. dRNA

  • D. mRNA

Do now jan 10
DO NOW Jan 10

  • 1. Copy the following strand of DNA…

  • A AAA T G G C T C C A T G C T G A

  • 2. Transcribe your copied strand from #1.

  • 3. Translate the section of mRNA from #2.

Do now answered jan 10

  • Replication

  • 1. A AAA T G G C T C C A T G C T G A

  • T TTT A C C G A G G T A C G A C T

  • Transcription

  • 2. T TTT A C C G A G G T A C G A C T

  • A AAA U G G C U C C A U G C U G A

Do now answered jan 101
DO NOW Answered Jan 10

  • 3. Translation

  • A AAA U G G C U C C A U G C U G A


  • MET – ALA – PRO – CYS

Agenda jan 10

  • BIG Question: How is a protein produced using RNA?

  • 1. Question of the Day and DO NOW

  • 2. Translation

  • 3. Transcription/Translation Practice Problems

  • 4. Homework and Review

  • QUIZ on MONDAY!!!!!

  • CH 12 TEST – NEXT WEEK!!!!!!!!!!!


The decoding of mRNA into a polypeptide chain (protein).

happens in cytoplasm

rRNA in ribosomes reads codons in mRNA

tRNA brings proper amino acids to form protein


Translation in four steps
Translation in Four Steps

  • Read your textbook: Pages 304 and 305

  • STEP A: Messenger RNA

  • mRNA is transcribed from DNA

    • In nucleus  released into cytoplasm

  • Attaches to a ribosome

  • STEP B: Transfer RNA

  • Each tRNA has an anitcodon (complementary to codon on mRNA).

    • Codon = AAA Anticodon = UUU

Translation in four steps1
Translation in Four Steps

  • STEP C: Polypeptide Assembly Line

  • Ribosome joins the amino acids together

  • After an amino acid is joined to the chain, the tRNA exits the ribosome.

  • Another tRNA delivers its amino acid to the Ribosome

  • STEP D: Completing the Polypeptide

  • The Ribosome moves along the mRNA.

    • Translation STOPS when it reads a STOP Codon.

    • Polypeptide is complete  folds into a Protein

Translation animation
Translation Animation


Do now jan 13
DO NOW Jan 13

  • How does tRNA help in the decoding of mRNA?

Do now answered

  • tRNA contains a complementary codon to the one found on the mRNA.

  • The codon found on tRNA is called an anti-codon.

  • tRNA carries a specific amino acid to ribosomes where they are joined together to form a polypeptide.


Question of the day jan 13
Question of the DAY Jan 13

  • The anticodon carried on tRNA for the codon CAG is

  • A. CUG

  • B. GTC

  • C. GAC

  • D. GUC

Agenda jan 13

  • Big Question: How do mutations affect cells?

  • 1. Question of the Day

  • 2. Review Translation Problems

  • 3. Mutations

  • 4. Review Key Concepts

  • 5. HOMEWORK – 12-4 and 12-5 Guided Reading Packet (Graded)

  • STUDY for QUIZ Tomorrow - Translation

12 4 mutations
12-4 Mutations

  • Changes in genetic material.

  • Gene Mutations occur within a single gene.

  • READ Pages 307 - 308

  • POINT Mutation – changes in one or a few nucleotides

  • Substitutions – affect a single amino acid

  • Insertions – can be more damaging

  • Deletions – can be more damaging


  • Frameshift Mutation – reading frame of codons are shifted

  • May affect all amino acids in an mRNA sequence

  • Protein may not be able to perform its function

  • Chromosomal Mutation – changes number or structure of chromosomes.

  • Change locations of genes and change numbers of copies of genes.


  • Mutations are a source of genetic variation.

  • Some mutations are beneficial to organisms.

  • Polyploidy is a condition where organisms have extra sets of chromosomes.

  • Polyploid plants are stronger and larger than diploid ones.

  • Bananas, strawberries, citrus fruits

Agenda jan 14

  • Big Question: How do mutations affect cells?

  • 1. QUIZ on Translation

  • 2. Regulating Gene Expression

  • 3. Review Key Concepts

  • 4. STUDY GUIDES – Homework Check

  • STUDY for TEST on Thursday

12 5 controlling gene expression
12-5: Controlling Gene Expression

  • cells regulate gene transcription

  • they do not always need a gene’s product

  • a transcribed gene is said to be expressed or turned on

  • a gene that is not being transcribed is off

Gene expression
Gene Expression

  • promoter: binding site for RNA polymerase

    • moves along DNA

    • finds the first gene

    • starts transcription

  • repressor: DNA binding protein

    • blocks a gene’s transcription

  • operator: special region of DNA

    • repressor binds here

    • RNA polymerase can not move past operator

Lac operon
Lac Operon

  • TEXTBOOK – Pages 309-310

  • Operon– group of genes that operate together.

    • Found in the bacterium E. coli

  • Lac genes are 3 genes

    • Needed to break down lactose for a food source.

  • Requires lactose to enter the cell.

  • Lactose binds repressor and activates lac genes.

    • RNA Polymerase free to move and begin transcription

Eukaryotic gene regulation
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

  • Most genes controlled individually

  • Contain complex regulatory sequences

  • TATA Box – short sequence of TATATA or TATAAA

    • Marks a point along DNA just before spot to begin transcription.

    • Makes cell specialization possible

    • Only a small number of genes expressed in each type of cell

    • Skin cell versus liver cell versus blood cell

Development and differentiation
Development and Differentiation

  • Gene expression important in development of complex organisms.

  • Differentiation is the specific growth of a cell’s structure and function.

    • Occurs during embryonic growth.

  • HOX Genes control this process in the embryo.

    • Mutations can completely change growth in organism.

Hox genes
HOX Genes

  • In the fruit fly, a mutation can replace the antennae with legs growing on its head.

  • HOX genes very similar in all organisms.

    • Due to common ancestry between organisms

  • Gene controlling eye growth in mouse  inserted into the “knee” of a fruit fly

    • An eye grew on the leg of this fruit fly.

    • These two animals have not shared a common ancestor in 600 million years.