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Governing Water Scarcity and Variability Case Studies from India presented at Climate Governance and Development Berlin 28-30 Sept., 2008. Joyashree Roy Professor of Economics Global Change Programme Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
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Governing Water Scarcity and VariabilityCase Studies from Indiapresented at Climate Governance and DevelopmentBerlin 28-30 Sept., 2008 Joyashree Roy Professor of Economics Global Change Programme Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India
Case Studies climate extremes, impacts, responsesand development goal oriented water service provision
Following Development Goalcan achieve both adaptation and mitigation with proactive actionclimate smart actions
Sustainability: Issues of Concern An issue of concern is that in which a state has not been performing well and hence is in need of good policies. Source: Roy, Chatterjee, Basak, Nandi (2007), Roy, Chatterjee, Basak (2008)
Facts: Weather extremes • Water quantity/volume • More precipitation/water in less number of days • Flood and drought • Source Augmentation, More Water storage and equitable distribution over longer period in a year • Problem more acute in urban areas with high and growing density • High temperature days: water quality, arsenic • BAU : Loss of water bodies, demand
Likely Impact on Growth and Development • Flood and drought increases : • Indebtedness • Dissaving • Migration • Inflation • Water borne diseases • Flood is worse than drought Jadavpur University
Likely Impact on Growth and Development • Incidence of loss are shared by • Government • NGOs • Communities • Households Jadavpur University
Implementation Strategy • Technical: progressed much but not sustained • Institutional: urgent need
Incentives and Institutions to Ensure Sustainability and Universal Access
Water use pattern by households 19 Source: Socioeconomic Survey 2003-2008
Society bears the burden More private cost More private benefit
Provides opportunity to Rationalise Developmental action Integration of water supply service with water recharge, rainwater harvesting, sewerage, solid waste management
Climate smart building codesUrgent Immediate Action To go beyond energy codes only Water safe building codes for all new buildings : Plumbing designs for individual water meters Meter installation mandatory for all new connections Rainwater harvesting Water using appliance standard Ground water recharge: Large Scale of operation for scientific, sustainable, quality 25
Supply side Mapping of existing resource Source identification and ownership definition Source augmentation Technical efficiency: Electricity intensity UFW Financial efficiency Sustainability Demand side Behaviourial incentive to reduce wastage Incentive design for economic group wise equity in allocation Integrated urban service charge but applicable with decentralised administration To induce selection of right kind of technology Governance
Beneficiaries do not pay • Proportion of beneficiaries of the piped water service among total population: 82% • Proportion of cost un-recovered: 83.7% • Cost society pays : UFW (30-50%)
Mitigation potential • no accounting for water supply and use • Per day wastage of treated water: 103.2 MG, cost wise Rs 800 thousand lost /day • Electricity required to produce 103.2 MG treated piped water: 108,478 units
Back of the envelope estimates • Even if 20% population halves (50% reduction) emission, effect is going to be less but if 80% reduces by little more than 1% same benefit will be generated. • Mitigation target 50:1?
Multi-criteria based Strategy WTP ATP criteria for basic amenities Access to Basic Minimum need Financial Sustainability Accountability of Service Provider 30
Value of water quality • Cost of inaction (4% of HH Income) • Rs 190 per capita per month on an average. • In arsenic prone areas Rs 297 per month. • Cost of action (2% HH income) • The current cost of supplying filtered piped water to households is Rs. 50-130/- per month per household.
Immediate policy implementation is necessary for initiation of the Volumetric Water Charge System Exists: Meter technology Installation know-how Calibration know-how Need capacity building Does not exist: Policy Regulation Incentive Monitoring infrastructure 32
Jadavpur University Thank you