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MDC Institute for Ethics In Health Care Presents:. Ethics And Prematurity: The Nurse As A Moral Agent Dr. Carol Petrozella RN, & Dr. Kate Callahan RN. Organizational Ideas and Actions.

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MDC Institute for Ethics In Health Care


Ethics And Prematurity: The Nurse As A Moral Agent

Dr. Carol Petrozella RN, & Dr. Kate Callahan RN

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Organizational Ideas and Actions

Although “everyone does it”, (Group Think) it still comes down to an individual’s decision about how one is going to act using or notusing ethical principles.

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Organizational Ideas and Actions

Although “everyone does it”, (Group Think) it still comes down to an individual’s decision about how one is going to act using or notusing ethical principles.

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Objectives To:

  • Identify the common terms and principles of modern bioethics.

  • Explain how the Code of Ethics guides Maternal Child nursing practice .

  • Discuss Ethical Issues that currently impact Health Care Environment.

  • Discuss the conflicts that arise when Ethical Principles & Healthcare practices collide.

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Ethical Principles

Conflict is inevitable. Ethical principles provide the framework/ tools which may facilitate individuals and society to resolve conflict in a fair, just and moral manner.

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Ethical Dilemma:

Situations necessitating a choice between two equal (usually undesirable) alternatives.

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Ethical Principles Decision Making?

  • Autonomy/Freedom

  • Veracity

  • Privacy/Confidentiality

  • Beneficence/Nonmaleficence

  • Fidelity

  • Justice

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Autonomy Decision Making?

  • The right to participate in and decide on a course of action without undue influence.

  • Self-Determination: which is the freedom to act independently. Individual actions are directed toward goals that are exclusively one’s own.

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Veracity Decision Making?

  • The duty to tell the truth.

    Truth-telling, honesty.

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Privacy/Confidentiality Decision Making?

  • Respecting privileged knowledge.

  • Respecting the “self” of others.

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Beneficence/Nonmaleficence Decision Making?

  • The principle and obligation of doing good and avoiding harm.

  • This principle counsels a provider to relate to clients in a way that will always be in the best interest of the client, rather than the provider.

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Fidelity Decision Making?

  • Strict observance of promises or duties.

  • This principle, as well as other principles, should be honored by both provider and client.

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Justice Decision Making?

  • The principle that deals with fairness, equity and equality and provides for an individual to claim that to which they are entitled.

    • Comparative Justice: Making a decision based on criteria and outcomes. ie: How to determine who qualifies for one available kidney. 55 year old male with three children versus a 13 old girl.

    • Noncomparative Justice: ie: a method of distributing needed kidneys using a lottery system.

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Cultural Values Influence Decision Making? Decision Making

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Diversity & Bioethics Decision Making?

Contemporary bioethical principles are all derived, directly or indirectly from the principle of autonomy. Within the world, no two people are exactly alike. Therefore, their values, motivations, moral beliefs, and moral characters may differ much more than their physical appearances.

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Respect for the Individual Decision Making?

  • In our pluralistic society individuals often misunderstand each other.

  • Even when they do understand each other, it is possible for them to disagree.

  • The Healthcare arena, in common with every other segment of society has found it necessary to find ways to create understanding and agreement.

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How to Create Understanding Decision Making? and Agreement?

  • Common ground must be created or found.

  • A function of Ethics, in our society, is to make agreement possible.

  • As healthcare professionals and patients meet, they meet as strangers from diverse backgrounds therefore, their ways of looking at and approaching the world are usually quite different.

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Creating Harmony is Difficult Decision Making? In The Healthcare Arena.

  • Power

  • Self esteem

  • Communication

  • Personality/Attitude

  • Education Level

  • Socioeconomic Class

  • Culture (which constitutes the most profound difference).

  • Values

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Ethics and Morality Decision Making?

  • Ethics is a set of moral principles and a code for behavior that govern an individual’s actions with other individuals and within society.

  • Morality is what people believe to be right and good, while ethics is a critical reflection about morality.

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Nurses as Moral Agents Decision Making?

  • Act for the welfare of their patients

  • Most time spent with patients

  • Develop Caring Relationships “Knowing the patient”

  • Code of Ethics – Caring & Patient Advocacy

  • Nurses’ Integrity

  • Lack the Power to Act = Moral Distress

  • Risk Taking

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Organizational Ideas and Actions Decision Making?

Although “everyone does it”, it still comes down to an individual’s decision about how one is going to act using or notusing ethical principles.

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Distributive Justice Decision Making?

  • The right of Liberty & Justice for all which in the Health policy perspective relates to the provisions of equal access to health care to all and equitable allocation of scarce resources

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Ethics Exercise: Decision Making?

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Welcome George Soros and his $$$$$$$$$$ Decision Making?

  • $1,000,000 March of Dimes Grant

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Who Gets the $$$$$$ & Why Decision Making?

1.Primary Preventive Services

2.Direct Patient Care

Social Services for Families

3.Economic Supplements to Families

4. Research for orphan drugs/diseases

5.Technology/New Equipment

6.Staffing (ratios)

7.Team Building


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Rules for the Grant: Decision Making?

  • $$ must be used under one category

    • Must identify specific uses for the $$

    • Must be used for Peri/Neonatal Care

    • Must provide JUSTIFICATIONS for

      the use of the $$

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Ethics Exercise Decision Making?

  • $$$ Keeping an Anencephalic child alive for organ harvesting

  • Prolonging life for family members to fly in to say good-bye

  • Provide resources for organ transplantation with and or without on-going care

  • Provide fertility services

  • Provide genetic studies

  • Provide on-going bereavement care