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Solar Dynamics Observatory and Seeing the Sun. Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). SDO during assembly The Launch Orbit Mission Instruments Capabilities. SDO. SDO launched on February 11, 2010, 10:23 am EST on an Atlas V from SLC 41 from Cape Canaveral.

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solar dynamics observatory sdo
Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

SDO during assembly

The Launch

Orbit

Mission

InstrumentsCapabilities

slide3
SDO

SDO launched on February 11, 2010, 10:23 am EST on an Atlas V from SLC 41 from Cape Canaveral.

After launch, the spacecraft was placed into an orbit around the earth with an initial perigee of about 1,600 mi. SDO is undergoing a series of orbit-raising maneuvers which will adjust its orbit until the spacecraft reaches its planned circular, geosynchronus orbit at an altitude of 22,000 miles, at 102° W longitude, inclined at 28.5° (near Chihuahua, Mexico).

Friday, May 14 2010, SDO passed a major milestone and was declared an operational mission.

slide4
SDO

SDO will study how solar activity is created and how Space Weather comes from that activity. Measurements of the interior of the Sun, the Sun's magnetic field, the hot plasma of the solar corona, and the irradiance that creates the ionospheres of the planets are the primary projects. The initial program is scheduled to last about five years.

slide5
SDO
  • SDO’s three instruments:
  • Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA)
  • EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)
  • Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)
slide6
SDO

Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA)

The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) is a battery of four telescopes designed to photograph the sun's surface and atmosphere. AIA filters cover 10 different wavelength bands, or colors, selected to reveal key aspects of solar activity. The bulk of SDO's data stream will come from these telescopes.

PI: Alan Title, PI Institution: Lockheed Martin Solar Astrophysics Laboratory.

slide7
SDO

EUV Variability Experiment (EVE)

The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) will measure fluctuations in the sun's ultraviolet output. EUV radiation sun has a direct and powerful effect on Earth's upper atmosphere, heating it, puffing it up, and breaking apart atoms and molecules.

"We really don't know how fast the sun varies at these wavelengths," - Dean Pesnell Goddard Space Center

PI: Tom Woods, PI Institution: University of Colorado.

slide8
SDO

Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will map solar magnetic fields and peer beneath the sun's opaque surface using a technique called helioseismology. A key goal of this experiment is to decipher the physics of the sun's magnetic dynamo.

PI: Phil Scherrer, PI Institution: Stanford University.

slide9
SDO

The image below illustrates the resolution capabilities of the SDO, STEREO (3-D Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory), and SOHO (SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecrafts. SDO's AIA instrument (right image) has twice the image resolution than STEREO (middle image) and 4 times greater imaging resolution than SOHO (left image). The image frequency also varies. SDO takes 1 image every second. At best STEREO takes 1 image every 3 minutes and SOHO takes 1 image every 12 minutes.

slide10
SDO

The ground station consists of two 18-meter radio antennas in White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, constructed specifically for SDO. Mission controllers will operate the spacecraft remotely from the Mission Operations Center at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The combined data rate will be about 130 Mbit/s, and the craft will generate approximately 1.5 terabytes of data per day, beaming back 150 million bits of data every second (The equivalent of about 380 full length movies).

sdo image gallery
SDO Image Gallery

http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/main.php

Coronal Hole

Earth vs Sun

Multi Temperature

Solar Flare

EVE Graph

spaceweather
Spaceweather

http://www.spaceweather.com

seeing the sun
Seeing the Sun

Space Odyssey Interactive Exhibit

Exhibit Review

Points to Consider

convection zone
Convection Zone

Convection Zone

1. The convection zone makes up the outer 30 percent of the sun’s disk.

2. Hot gases from the interior of the sun rise toward the surface on huge plumes that cool as they rise.

3. These movements of hot gas cause turbulent boiling of gases on the Sun’s surface.

4. Temperature: 10,000 to 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit

radiation zone
Radiation Zone

Radiation Zone

1. The radiation zone makes up 70 percent of the Sun’s interior.

2. Energy produced in the core is carried outward through this zone in the form of x-rays, and other radiation.

3. Temperature: 3.5 million to 27 million degrees Fahrenheit

slide16
Core

Core

1. Nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core releases the energy that makes the Sun shine.

2. Nuclear fusion happens when gravitational pressure creates such extreme heat that hydrogen nuclei (protons) fuse into helium nuclei.

3. Temperature: 27 million degrees Fahrenheit

photosphere
Photosphere

Photosphere

1.The photosphere is a thin layer only a few hundred miles thick.

2. The photosphere is the only part of the sun that human eyes can actually see, but you should never look directly at the Sun.

3. Sunspots and granulation occur in the photosphere.

4. Temperature: 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit

NOTE: granules are caused by convection currents of plasma

chromosphere
Chromosphere

Chromosphere

1. The chromosphere is about 3,000 miles thick and lies above the photosphere. It looks red during a solar eclipse.

2. Solar eruptions called prominences begin in the chromosphere.

3. Prominences are dense clouds of gas suspended above the surface by loops of the Sun’s magnetic field.

4. Temperature: 10,000 to 2 million degrees Fahrenheit

corona
Corona

Corona

1. The corona is the Sun’s outer atmosphere. It is invisible to human eyes except during a total solar eclipse.

2. Gases in the Sun’s corona are much hotter and much less dense than the gases below.

3. The corona features the Sun’s most spectacular events, coronal mass ejection (CMEs) and solar flares.

4. Temperature: 2 million to 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit

NOTE: Temperatures are much higher than at the surface

seeing the sun1
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

Astronomers use space bound instruments above our atmosphere when studying the sun.

A. SDO - geosynchronus orbit (2010)

B. SOHO - LaGrange Point (L1) (1 million miles towards the sun) (1995)

C. Stereo - 45 degrees ahead and 45 degrees behind the earth in its orbit around the sun (2006)

SDO

seeing the sun2
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

Earth bound instruments include:

A. Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma (2002)

B. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope in Arizona outside of Tucson (1962)

seeing the sun3
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

Spectroscopy is the science of the various wavelengths of light (electro magnetic spectrum).

seeing the sun4
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

Helioseismology is the analysis of wave motions of the solar surface to determine the structure of the sun's interior.

seeing the sun5
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

X-rays and ultraviolet rays are shorter wavelengths than visible light and the high energy they emit as they are ejected from the sun makes it important to study them in our technology oriented society.

Cell Phones

Satellites

Astronauts

seeing the sun6
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

Infrared and microwave rays are longer wavelengths than visible light.

seeing the sun7
Seeing the Sun

Points to make when facilitating

Seeing the Sun

The different wavelengths of light reveal different temperatures as well as different layers of the sun allowing us to study the characteristics and composition of our sun as well as stars, galaxies and other celestial objects.

seeing the sun8
Seeing the Sun

Summary

Everything we know about the cosmos, we know because we analyze the properties of the light that these celestial objects emit.

Their light can travel billions of light years before reaching earth but the information can still be gathered, analyzed and new theories developed.

Studying our sun is the first step in developing our knowledge of the universe.

july 11 2010 total solar eclipse5
July 11, 2010 Total Solar Eclipse

Isla de Pascua (Easter Island)

july 11 2010 total solar eclipse6
July 11, 2010 Total Solar Eclipse

Isla de Pascua (Easter Island)

july 11 2010 total solar eclipse7
July 11, 2010 Total Solar Eclipse

Isla de Pascua (Easter Island)

july 11 2010 total solar eclipse8
July 11, 2010 Total Solar Eclipse

Isla de Pascua (Easter Island)