Learning Intentions Over the next week, I will: • Gain an understanding of how Scotland and the UK are multicultural • Recognise the problems facing ethnic groups and the reasons for this • Gain an understanding of the inequalities ethnic groups face in employment and health • Gain an understanding of the government response to ethnic inequality
Success Criteria I will: • Take notes and create mind-maps on ethnic issues in Scotland and the UK • I will answer Knowledge Questions based about ethnic inequalities in the UK in preparation for my exam
Ethnic Inequality Lesson Starter • Why are ethnic groups more likely to be poorer and unhealthier than the general population in the UK? List as many reasons as you can think of.
The Ethnic Population of Scotland • Scotland today is a multicultural and multiethnic country • The BME (Black Minority Ethnic) population is 2% of the Scottish population
The Ethnic Population of Scotland The ethnic population of Scotland is smaller than in the rest of the UK 70% of the total ethnic population are Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese or South Asian Pakistanis are the largest ethnic group followed by Chinese, Indians and those of mixed race Ethnic Population in Scotland 12% of the minority population are mixed ethnicity The ethnic population is growing faster than the general population (new immigrants and larger families) Pakistanis are the largest ethnic group followed by Chinese, Indians and those of mixed race
The Ethnic Population of England and Wales Becoming less segregated – mix more with wider population Irish and Polish are biggest categories for foreign born residents Concentrated in poorer urban areas Ethnic Population in England and Wales Indians and Pakistanis are the biggest non-white groups As in Scotland, the ethnic population is growing faster Ethnic whites 86% of population
Problems facing ethnic groups • Poverty rates are higher • Wages are lower • Less are promoted • Unemployment is higher • Educational attainment is lower • Conviction rates for crime are higher • More likely to be stopped or arrested than whites • Health is poorer
Reasons for Ethnic Inequalities • We know already that poverty and social exclusion is caused by a number of factors but they can affect ethnic groups more acutely: • Many minorities live in cities in poor, run down areas with poor schools • English may not be first language • Experience prejudice and discrimination from employers • Less opportunities for jobs in poorer areas they live in • Less or no qualifications
KU Question • Explain, in detail, why some ethnic groups experience inequalities. (8 marks)
The Equality Act 2010 • This UK Government law makes it illegal to discriminate against people for any reason, including race or religion. • No excuses for discrimination in terms of employment, provision of services or in education for example
Ethnic Inequality - Employment • March 2012, the Guardian newspaper reported that “Half of the UK’s young black males are unemployed”. • This is double the rate for whites.
Ethnic Inequality - Employment Bangladeshis, Pakistanis, Black Africans and Black-Carribeans worst affected Black unemployment has increased 70% in 3 years Women worse affected than men Ethnic Unemployment Ethnic employees earn less. For example, 48% of Bangladeshis earn less than £7 per hour Ethnics make up 10.3% of the population but only 8.5% of workforce First black Chief Executive Officer in 2009
Why? • Live in poor areas with fewer opportunities and only low paid work available • Fewer promotion opportunities in low paying jobs • Ethnics put off some jobs because they are “less welcoming”, e.g. police and legal professions • Language barrier in some jobs • Spending cuts by government have led to rise in unemployment of ethnic workers
Signs of Improvement? • How Fair is Britain Report found that: • Indian and Chinese people twice as likely to be employed as professionals as whites • Muslim men just as likely to be in managerial/professional jobs as unskilled • % of Bangladeshi and Pakistani people in work is on the up • Black and Bangladeshi children’s school performance is improving, increasing their chances of being employed after school
Ethnic Inequality - Health Asians and other blacks have same health as whites Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Black Carribeans have worst health in UK Chinese health best in country Health amongst ethnic groups Ethnic groups more likely to have heart disease but less likely to have cancer compared to whites Asian woman twice as likely to commit suicide as white women People of Indian origin are 3 times as likely to have diabetes
Why? • Poverty and social exclusion – this affects ethnic groups more than whites • Housing and area – more ethnic groups live in poorer areas • Employment – more likely to be unemployed or low paid • Culture – lifestyle choices of some ethnic groups affects health, e.g. diet – South Asians smoke more and exercise less and eat more saturated fat • Biology – More prone to certain illnesses, e.g. Men from South Asia are twice as likely to have a heart attack or angina • Mental Health – Black-Caribbean and Africans 7 times more likely to suffer mental health issues – link to poverty and social exclusion
Attempts to change this… • The Equality Act 2010 – equal access to things like healthcare for all • Race for Health – tackles racial inequality in relation to diabetes, mental health, child births and coronary heart disease (England and Wales) • Equally Well – Scottish Government plan to tackle health inequalities • NHS Scotland Equality Outcomes – March 2012 – Attempt to ensure that “no groups are left behind” in terms of health provision
KU Questions • Explain, in detail, why ethnic groups experience inequality in employment and health. (8 marks) • Explain, in detail, what is being done to tackle ethnic inequalities in the UK (8 marks)
Homework • Find examples of racial discrimination in terms of health, education, employment etc. • You can use these as examples for KU questions.
Do I… • Understand how Scotland and the UK are multicultural • Recognise the problems facing ethnic groups and the reasons for this • Understand the inequalities ethnic groups face in employment and health • Understanding the government response to ethnic inequality
Did I… • Take notes and create mind-maps on ethnic issues in Scotland and the UK? • Answer Knowledge Questions based about ethnic inequalities in the UK?