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FP7-NMP-2008-CSA-2998346311 project Coordination actions with Materials researchers in major world regions Bridge between environment and industry designed by membrane technology Coordinator: Professor Gilbert RIOS, European Membrane House • Start Date: May 2009 • Duration: 24 Months • Now: the 14-th month is going Astana, 21 June, 2010
Main events May 2009 May 2010 May 2011 4th Prague(EU) CHISA + ECCE 7 1st 3rd Brussels(EU) Specific event 2nd 5th Moscow(RU) Congress 1st 1st Prague(EU) Permea Kick-off 2nd 2nd Montpellier(EU) EuroMembrane 1st Tuapse (RU) Congress 2nd 3rd Astana (KA) Specific event 3rd 4th Warsaw(EU) Congress YRA Tuapse (05.2009) NYM11 Montpellier (09.2009) NYM12 (08/09.2010) 1 NanoMemCourse Health (04.2010 1 NanoMemCourse Food (09.2010) Legend PC Partnering conference RTRound-Table IDE Industrially-driven event GA-CM General assembly-Coordination meeting YRAYoung research activities
Development of the project • Tuapse, May 2009 (KubSU): 1st meeting; • Prague, June 2009 (MEGA): kick-off meeting; 1st IDE; first discussions, establishment of partnership; formulation of tasks; • Montpellier, September 2009 (CTI): 2nd IDE; results of the 1st questionnaire on potential partnerships and micro-consortia (23 potential projects); • Brussels, December 2009 (EMH): 1st partnership conference; presentations of the-state-of-the-art in the main directions of membrane science&technology. Suggestions by Peter Shandler: to reduce the number of topics; to increase efforts for website development
Criteria for selecting topics • Importance for durable development of society; • High level of competence of MemBridge partners in the field; Possibility to make a breakthrough in the actual level of science&technology; • Involvement of maximum number of partners; • High expected impact of the project results
Hot topics to be discussed at MemBridge meetings • Towards ZLD technologies (Astana, 21-22 June 2010) • Enzyme-Assisted Membrane Nanoreactors for Biotechnology (Moscow, 4-8 October 2010) • Gas separation processes in Energy and Environment (Moscow, 4-8 October 2010)
RusMembraneNet web site (www.Rusmembrane.net) opened for all Russian/NIS organisations working in membrane science and technology
Towards ZLD technologies:principle, market, what can we do? Victor Nikonenko Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia, E-mail: email@example.com Astana, 21 June, 2010
ZLD systems: general idea Keith Minnich, Veolia’s vice president: “A ZLD system means that no liquid waste leaves the boundary of the facility.”
vapor vapor brine, 250 g/L retentate, < 80 g/L Crystallizer Evaporator RO Pre- treatment: row Solid salts softened water water General scheme of a ZLD system de-calcifier, NF, or other To what else ??? Saleable salts – to de-ice roads Sludge, 85-95% solids content – disposed of in landfill
Why ZLD? The main motivations • Fresh water scarcity: 20 years ago, this problem was recognized in a so large measure that the term ‘virtual water’ was introduced (Prof. J.A. Allan, Israel). It is the water, which is incorporated in some products, such as avocados, cotton. Thus, Israel reconsiders its agricultural politics in order to reduce water export via these agricultural products. • Social responsibility: We are recycling bottles, newspapers and plastics. • Why not water? Only less than 5% of wastewater is presently recovered. • 3) Economics: • potable and fresh water price rises; • the regulations on the discharge of waste fluids becomes more stringent; In Colorado, Arizona, California, St.-Petersburg, … the maximum acceptable salt concentration in wastewaters is very low. The discharge of salts is payable. ZLD or nearly ZLD systems will be widely used when the costs of 1 m3 of pure water, including the payment of discharge, will be the lowest, if applying these systems
Market • Power and electrical plants: steam production; regeneration of liquid wastes from flue gas scrubbers; • Oil/gas industry (refineries, petrochemical): steam production for heavy oil and bitumen recovery; • Mining: treatment of drainage wastewater to reuse the water and create saleable salt product (coal production; shale gas: reuse of water for fracture the rocks); • Chemical industry: ethanol production (production of 1 m3 of ethanol needs 3.5 m3 of water); fertilizer production, … • The main players in the ZLD niche: Aquatech, GE Power and Water, and HPD, a subsidiary of Veolia; • Capital investments in ZLD systems is $100-200 mln/year; • Annual growth rate >200% over the next decade [GWI 10 (12) (2009) 37] • GWI evaluates the worldwide desalination as 40 million m3/day. The brine obtained is waiting to be treated…
Zero has its minuses: ZLD is expensive • High capital costs: a traditional wastewater treatment system of about 1000 m3/h capacity and 80% recovery costs $20 mln. The 200 m3/h evaporator and crystallizer system (made in titanium and highnickel stainless steel) necessary to capture the last 20% doubles this cost. • High energy consumption: a desalination plant uses 2-4 kWh/m3; a ZLD system, 20-40 kWh/m3 [GWI 10 (12) (2009) 37].
RTD directions • To find alternatives to energy-intensive evaporator/crystallizer systems. Veolia uses electrodialysis… Increasing studies of membrane distillation and crystallization… • To improve the pre-treatment system: RO without pre-treatment is not effective: fouling is too intensive. Aquatech uses de-calcifiers. • To find the possibilities to reuse partially treated wastewater. Sometimes there are no need to obtain potable standard. Siemens Water Technologies uses acid waters, produced in stripping sulphur from gasoline and diesel products, for removing salts from crude oil as it enters the refinery.
Ways of optimization • Use of mechanical vapour recompression, or VPR: when boiling water on a stove, 650 kWh/m3 are needed; when using VPR, it’s only 20 kWh/m3. • Use of membrane distillation (MD) and membrane crystallization (MC) systems. These are thermally driven processes, in which relatively low feed temperature (<90 C) is used. This allows the utilization of waste heat, e.g. the condensate from turbines or heat exchangers. MD takes the same energy as a normal one with VPR (about 20 kWh/m3). However, the use of waste heat results in reducing the electrical energy going down to 0.3-0.5 kWh/m3 [F. Macedonio, E. Drioli, Membrane engineering progresses in desalination and water reuse, Membrane Water Treatment, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2010) 75]
What can we do? • To create a Consortium to make a breakthrough in ZLD (or nearly ZLD) systems. • To optimise the pre-treatment system • To replace evaporators by ED concentrators • To use membrane crystallizer instead of traditional one. A rather pessimistic evaluation (made by V. Zabolotsky) of the energy consumption shows that we will need about 10 kWh/m3 (instead of actual 20-40 kWh/m3) to completely reuse the water under the conditions of a power plant.
New approaches and new possibilities in electromembrane processes.... ZLD technologies urge to revise traditional ways of electromembrane processes applications. In particular, intensive current regimes becomes of renewed interest because the salts of hardness may be removed before the solution enters into the membrane stack; ED concentrators: the need of new membranes and new design; Bipolar ED: the use for changing solutions pH
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