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Status of Global Advancement of Biotechnology in All Areas. Duane R. Berglund and Phil McClean Department of Plant Science North Dakota State University. September 22, 2005. The Crop Biotech Market Is Dominated By Five Countries a. 6.7%/13 ma (6.0%/10 ma). 58.8%/118 ma (63%/106 ma).

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Status of Global Advancement of Biotechnology in All Areas

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Status of Global Advancement


Biotechnology in All Areas

Duane R. Berglund and

Phil McClean

Department of Plant Science

North Dakota State University

September 22, 2005


The Crop Biotech Market Is Dominated

By Five Countriesa

6.7%/13 ma

(6.0%/10 ma)

58.8%/118 ma

(63%/106 ma)

4.6%/9 ma

(3%/7 ma)

6.2%/12 ma

(3%/7 ma)

20.0%/40 ma

(21%/36 ma)

Top Five Countries = 96% of market

20 % increase in biotech acreage from 2003

a2004 growing season data. 2003 in parentheses.


Impact of GM Crops on

Worldwide Crop Production

GM crops are grown on 5%

of the 3.7 billion acres of cultivated land in the world

global value of biotech crop market
2004 market value of Biotech crops was $4.70 Billion

Represented 15% of the total global crop value of $32.5 Billion

Projected global Biotech crop value in 2005 is a > $5 Billion

Source: CropBiotech.Net

Global Value of Biotech Crop Market

The Latest Biotech News

ND GMO Planting Decisions (Winter 2005)

  • New law enacted during 2005 legislative session
  • Only the ND state government has the authority to ban
  • plantings of GMO crops
  • Response to laws passed at county level in other states

EU Approving GMO-free Zones (May 2005)

  • European Union GMO regulations permit regions
  • to declare themselves GMO Free
  • Otherwise approved GMO products can be grown
  • 162 regions or provinces (like states in USA) have asked to be GMO free
  • 4500 total government units have made the request

Economic Effect of Bt Cotton

In China

  • $200/acre increase in income
  • $750 million increase nationally

Benefits to Hungarian Farmers

From: Demont et al. 2005. Potential impact of biotechnology in eastern Europe: transgenic maize, sugar beet, and

oilseed rape in Hungary.


Herbicide resistant crops

  • current: soybean, corn, canola, cotton, alfalfa
  • coming: sugarbeet (on hold), lettuce, strawberry,

wheat (on hold), Turf grass

  • resistance gene from bacteria is source

Source: Monsanto

Virus resistance

  • papaya, squash, potato
  • resistance gene from a virus
whats being looked at today in the biotechnology labs

130+ medicines and vaccines

350+ products in clinical trials

Environmental Cleanup

Microorganisms to clean-up waste

Industrial Processes

Reduce impact of processes in cleaning, textile and paper industries

Food Applications

Enzymes for cheese, yogurt, baked goods, wine


Insect control

Other agronomic traits – fusarium, leaf rust, drought and salt tolerance

Improved Quality of grains

Food applications

Animal Healthcare and

Marine Life

Whats Being Looked at Today in the Biotechnology Labs.

Source : Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO)


Bacterial and Animal Biotechnology Products

Biotech chymosin

  • enzyme used to curdle milk products
  • gene from yeast
  • harvested from GE bacteria
  • replaces the calf enzyme

Source: Chr. Hansen

bST (bovine somatotropin)

  • increases milk production
  • gene from cow
  • protein harvested from GE bacteria
  • replaces cow protein originally
  • harvested from pituitary glands
  • of slaughtered cows

Source: Rent Mother Nature


Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products

Golden Rice

  • Increased Vitamin A content
  • Transgenes from bacteria and daffidol
  • Controversory: large amount needed to
  • solve problem and is a culture issue!!


  • White mold resistance
  • Resistance gene from wheat

Source: Minnesota

Microscopy Society


Environmental Applications

Indicator bacteria

  • contamination is detected in the environment
  • microbes sensitive to certain pollutants


  • cleanup contaminated sites
  • uses microbes designed to degrade
  • the pollutant

Land Mine Detection

Without this effort,

that is dangerous to our military,

children aremaimed.


Land Mine Detection

  • How biotechnology helps
    • Patented transgene added to plants
    • When metal from mine is detected
      • Plant turns from green to red
    • Technology developed by Aresa Biodetection

Mine detected


Edible Vaccines – A Biopharming Dream

Biotech Plants Serving Human Health Needs

  • A pathogen protein gene is cloned
  • Gene is inserted into the DNA of plant (potato, banana, tomato)
  • Plant must be isolated and highly regulated!
  • Humans eat the plant
  • The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein
  • Human are “immunized” against the pathogen
  • Examples:
    • Diarrhea
    • Hepatitis B
    • Measles

Future Health-related Biotech Products


  • Herpes
  • hepatitis C
  • AIDS
  • malaria

Tooth decay

  • Streptococcus mutans, the mouth bacteria
  • releases lactic acid that destroys enamel
  • engineered Streptococcus mutans
  • does not release lactic acid
  • destroys the tooth decay strain
  • of bacteria

Top Biotechnologies

In The Future

  • Nutritionally Enriched Crops
    • Malnutrition is widespread
    • Malnutrition is associated with many diseases
    • Modification of staple crops necessary
    • to solve the problem

Precautionary Principle

Why Europe Regulates Biotech Products

  • Precautionary Principle States
  • Commercial activities can be restricted by governments
    • IF a scientific or environment risk is perceived
    • EVEN IF conclusive data is NOT YET available
  • It is:
  • A key principle that underlies European Union approaches
  • to regulating biotech products
  • Incorporated into the Maastricht Treaty that lead to
  • the formation of the EU

Precautionary Principle

Effects of Applying the Principle

  • The principle makes it difficult to:
    • determine when risk avoidance should take precedence
  • over the general welfare
  • At its most basic, the principle
    • Regulates man’s excitement of the new and novel
    • Can prevent the most unexpected damage from occurring
  • As interpreted the principle requires that:
    • Biotech products should be regulated until

compelling evidence proves they are safe


What Would Lead to Acceptance

of GMO Products?

Significantly Lower Prices

  • Norway (2003 study)
  • Consumers would buy the product over non-GMO bread
    • If the cost of GMO bread 49.5% lower
  • Japan (2004 study)
  • Consumers would preferentially buy GMO-base product
    • If the cost of GMO noodles was >50% lower
  • England (2001 study)
  • Men: would pay 26% extra to avoid GMO technology
  • Woman: would pay 49% extra to avoid GMO technology

Data quoted from: AgBioForum (2004) 7:70-75


Other Attitudes Toward Biotechnology

Developing Countries

  • China
    • Will pay
      • 16% premium for GM oil
      • 38% premium for GMO rice
      • 35% premium for processed GMO potato products
  • Colombia
    • 66% would try GMO products
    • GMO products most favorable to those with limited
    • access to high quality food

Data quoted from: AgBioForum (2004) 7:70-75


Why Are Attitudes Different??

  • In these countries,
  • An urgent need for available, nutritious food of
  • good quality exitsted
  • Individuals trusted their government
  • Science in general had a positive public opinion
  • These attitudes are opposite of those expressed in
  • European public opinion pools.

Data quoted from: AgBioForum (2004) 7:70-75