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# Types of Relationships - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Types of Relationships. Social scientists are interested in discovering functional relationships between variables. In particular, researchers look for: correlations (association, covariation) among vaariables differences between groups or conditions. The nature of causation.

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Presentation Transcript

• Social scientists are interested in discovering functional relationships between variables.

• In particular, researchers look for:

• correlations (association, covariation) among vaariables

• differences between groups or conditions

• Cause-effect relationships--causation is always inferred, never directly observed

• “functional” relationships

• one thing correlates with, or is associated with another (correlation)

• one thing predicts or explains the amount of variance in another (analysis of variance)

• one thing has a direct effect on another (path analysis, multiple regression)

(dependent

variable)

Note: “3/4 rule”

the convention is

to make the Y axis

3/4 of the length

of the x axis

Y-axis

(independent variable)

X-axis

• displaying correlations using a scattergram

• linear relationship

• can be positive or negative

• curvilinear relationship

• also known as nonmonotonic relationships, quadratic trends, “u-shaped” or “inverted-u”

• requires a minimum of three levels of the variable being investigated

• no correlation

• spurious effect

Illustration of Scatterplots breaks?

• Scatterplots that are closer to a straight line have correlations closer to +1.0 or -1.0

• Must have interval or ratio data

• Correlation does not prove causation

Linear relationship

Curvilinear relationship

Differences Between Groups breaks?or Conditions

• main effect (changes produced by one independent variable alone)

• one-way interaction

• interaction effect (changes produces by independent variables acting together, or in concert

• two-way interaction

• three-way interaction

touch breaks?

no touch

### interpersonal touch, social labeling, and the foot-in-the-door effect

positive

FITD

.15

.40

negative

FITD

.45

.25

attractive criminal

unattractive criminal

swindler

4.35

5.45

2.80

5.20

burglar

non-significant-interaction breaks?

A characteristic feature of non-significant interaction effects is that the lines are parallel, or nearly parallel

potentially significant interaction breaks?(disordinal or “crossed”)

evidence quality

low high

high quality

evidence

Source Credibility

low high

Attitude change

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

low quality

evidence

low high

Source Credibility

Easy test

Test score

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Hard test

500

900