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Topic 5 Processor Development

Topic 5 Processor Development

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Topic 5 Processor Development

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  1. Topic 5 Processor Development AH Computing Computer Architecture

  2. SQA arrangements • Description of the evolution of the following microprocessor architectures: the Power PC series, the Intel X86 series and the Intel IA-64 in terms, where appropriate, of the following features and techniques: • increasing clock speeds • data bus widths • pipelining • superscalar processing • branch prediction • speculative loading of data and executing of instructions • predication • the number and function of registers used • SIMD • RISC • CISC • Explanation of the relationship between these developments and system performance.

  3. Introduction • From 1980s, microprocessor architecture has developed rapidly, as a result of • Increasing miniaturisation of microelectronic circuitry, which means that more and more complex chip designs have become possible and economically viable • The pressure form software developers to design microprocessors with ever increasing performance

  4. Introduction • The first microprocessors were not general purpose processors but were designed for specific applications

  5. Intel 4004 (1971) • the first complete CPU on one chip • the first commercially available microprocessor used in calculators, data terminals, numeric control systems etc. • 16 general purpose registers • 1KByte of data memory and 4Kbytes of instruction memory • 16 4-bit GP registers • Clock speed of 740 KHz • 45 instructions Development of Intel

  6. Intel 8080 (1974) • 16-bit address bus, 8-bit data bus • PC was 16 bits long • 7 8-bit GP registers • Used in the first personal computer, the Altair 8800 • Others…Zilog Z-80, Motorola/MOS 6502

  7. Processor Development Look at the evolution of families of processors • Power PC • Intel X86 • Intel I-64

  8. Processor Development Compare the following features and techniques • Increasing clock speeds • Data bus widths • Pipelining • Superscalar processing • Branch prediction • Speculative loading of data • Predication • The number and function of registers used • SIMD • RISC • CISC

  9. 8086/88 (1979)

  10. Pentium • Intel introduced superscalar architecture to the Pentium processor • 2 integer arithmetic and logic units • 1 Floating Point unit • 8 80-bit

  11. X86 series evolution

  12. Development of registers X86 8086 80286

  13. Development of registers X86 80486

  14. Development of registers X86 Pentium 3

  15. Summary of X86 The X86 series of microprocessors can be characterised as having: • a relatively small number of registers (8 GP, 8 FP and 8 SIMD) • a large instruction set • instructions of varying length • many addressing modes • These characteristics are typical of CISC (complex instruction set computer) architecture. Other CISC based processors include the IBM 370 and the VAX11/780.

  16. Questions (Scholar page 128) • Sketch a graph of the increase in clock speeds from the 8086 to the Pentium processor • Which of the X86 processors was the first to use pipelining to improve performance? • How many registers has the (a) 8086, (b) 80286, (c) 80486 (d) Pentium • Which X86 chip was the first to have a superscalar architecture? • The X86 series are considered to be CISC processors. Justify this claim.

  17. PowerPC series

  18. Background • Improvements in processor capability and operating systems led to the birth of the Wintel PC • Wintel is portmanteau of Windows and Intel. It usually means a computer based on an Intel x86 compatible processor and running the Microsoft Windowsoperating system. • Still dominates the laptop and desktop market

  19. Motorola • At the same time Motorola was developing its own family of microprocessors, the 68000 series • These were developed as 32-bit processors from start • As a result, Apple was able to develop its Macintosh computers with true graphical OS from the start

  20. Motorola 68000 (1979) • Same time as Intel 8086 • 8MHz clock speed • 32-bit architecture • 16-bit data bus, 24-bit address bus • 16 32-bit registers (8 data, 8 address) • No segment registers required as direct addressing used • Used pre-fetching to speed up execution

  21. Motorola 68020 (1984) • 32-bit data and address buses • Pipeline had 3 stages • 256 cache added

  22. Motorola 68040 (1991) • 32-bit data and address buses • Pipeline had 6 stages • Floating point unit added • 4Kbyte caches for data and programs added

  23. Motorola 68060 (1994) • Superscalar – 3 execution units, 2 integer and 1 FP • 10 stage pipelines • 8Kbyte caches for data and programs

  24. Motorola series • Used in Sun workstations, Apple Macintosh computers, and later Atari computers • No longer in use in main computer market • Still used in embedded systems • Motorola and IBM designed the first PowerPC chip to

  25. Main Characteristics of Motorola series In the final years of the 68000 processors, Apple, Motorola and IBM defined a specification for open system software and hardware, and Motorola and IBM designed the first PowerPC chip to meet this specification.

  26. PowerPC • Acronym for “performance optimised with enhanced RISC” • Compared with CISC-based X86 • More registers • A smaller, but more efficient, instruction set • Less addressing modes

  27. PowerPC • First chip 601 in 1993 • 32-bit chip with a 64-bit data bus • Clock speed of 60MHz • Up to 4 Gb of memory • Superscalar architecture 3 independent execution units (integer, floating point and branch processing) – each with a 6 stage pipeline

  28. Used in the XBox Used in the Nintendo Wii

  29. Power PC overview • Used in • Controllers in cars • Networking – routers and servers • Honda’s Asimo • Vehicle-Management Computer for the F-35 fighter jet • Playstation 3, Wii, Nintendo DS

  30. All Power PC processors have • two sets of 32 programmer accessible GP registers (64 bits wide) • And a small number of special purpose registers

  31. Direct addressing for Load, Store and Branch instructions. All other instruction address internal registers Comparison of X86 with PowerPC

  32. TRENDS important

  33. Summary of table • clock speeds have increased by a factor of 50 in 10 years • bus speeds have increased by a factor of 20 • the complexity (no. of transistors) has increased by a factor of 20 • on chip cache has increased • new features have been added.

  34. Clock speeds • PowerPC chips had clock speeds lower than CISC based designs • But more efficient RISC based technology gave a better performance. • Clock speed alone cannot be used to compare processors

  35. Questions (Page 133) • Which 3 companies cooperated in the design of the PowerPC specification? • What was the first PowerPC chip released, and when? • The 601 chip can be described as superscalar. How is this justified? • How many programmer accessible registers are there in all PowerPC chips? • Compare the X86 and PowerPC architectures in terms of • a) instructions set • b) instruction length • c) addressing modes • What new feature did the G3 chip have which improved performance? • Which was the first PowerPC chip to have SIMD instructions? • a) 601 • b) 604e • c) G3 • d) G4 • e) G5 • Why is clock speed not a good way of comparing a Windows PC with a Apple Macintosh? • Other than in Apple computers, what are PowerPC chips used for?

  36. Answers Q10: Apple, Motorola, IBM Q11: the 601 in 1993 Q12: it has 3 independent processing units - the floating point unit (FPU), the integer ALU, and the system unit Q13: 2 sets of 32 registers, each 64 bits wide Q14: a) similar - X86 has 235 different instructions, PowerPC has 225 b) X86 has varied instruction lengths (1-11 bytes), the PowerPC instructions are all exactly 4 bytes c) the X86 has 11 addressing modes, the PowerPC has only 2 Q15: L2 "backside" cache on chip Q16: d) G4 Q17: because the Mac uses the more efficient RISC architecture, a Mac with a lower clock speed may outperform a Windows PC with a higher clock speed Q18: IBM servers, Nintendo Game Cube, and a range of embedded applications

  37. Intel IA-64

  38. Intel IA-64 • The X86 series reached its peak with the Pentium 3, Pentium 4 and Athlon processors. • These are essentially CISC processors, using pipelining and superscalar processing, but with some RISC-like features. In 1994, Intel and HP began work on designing a new 64-bit architecture to replace the X86 series.

  39. EPIC • Combination of RISC and CISC features, and is given the description EPIC - explicitly parallel instruction computing. There are 4 key features to the design: • instruction level parallelism - the compiler creates code which uses the many parallel execution units of the processor • use of VLIW - very long instruction words • use of predication - executing both branches of a program, then discarding the "not chosen" branch results • use of speculative loading - use of large fast cache to load data and instructions in advance of when they will be required

  40. X86 IA-64