Download
psychology in action 8e by karen huffman n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman

152 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 11: Gender and Human Sexuality Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  2. Lecture Overview • Sex and Gender • The Study of Human Sexuality • Sexual Behavior • Sexual Problems ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  3. Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms • Sex: biological maleness or femaleness including chromosomal sex; also, sexual behaviors of intercourse/masturbation • Gender:psychological and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  4. Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) • Gender Identity: self-identification as either a man or a woman • Gender Role: societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  5. Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) • Sexual Orientation: primary erotic attraction toward members of same sex (homosexual, gay, or lesbian), both sexes (bisexual), or other sex (heterosexual) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  6. Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) • Transsexual: mismatch between gender identity and gonads, genitals, or internal accessory organs • Transvestite: individuals who cross-dress for emotional and/or sexual gratification; from Latin trans, meaning “to change,” and vestire, meaning “clothing” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  7. Androgyny: combining characteristics typically male (assertive, physical) with those considered typically female (emotional, nurturing); from Greek andro, meaning “male,” and gyn, meaning “female” Sex and Gender—Important/Confusing Terms (Cont.) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  8. Dimensions of Sex and Gender Sex Dimensions Male Female 1.Chromosomes 2. Gonads 3. Hormones 4. External genitals 5. Internal accessory organs 6. Secondary sex characteristics 7. Sexual orientation XY XX Testes Ovaries Androgens Estrogens Penis, scrotum Labia, clitoris, vaginal opening Prostate, seminal Vagina, uterus, vesicles, fallopian tubes, vas deferens cervix Beard, low voice, Breasts, sperm emission menstruation Heterosexual, gay, Heterosexual, bisexual lesbian, bisexual ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  9. Male and Female Internal and External Sex Organs ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  10. Gender Dimensions Male Female 8. Gender identity* Perceives self Perceives self as male as female 9. Gender role ** Masculine Feminine *Gender identity is self-defined **Gender role is socially-defined Dimensions of Sex and Gender (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  11. Gender Role Development • Social-learning theory suggests gender roles develop as children: • receive rewards/punishments for gender role behaviors and attitudes. • watch and imitate the behaviors and attitudes of others. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  12. Gender Role Development • Cognitive-developmentaltheory suggestschildren form gender schemas (mental images) of correct behaviors for boys versus girls. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  13. Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking • What are the best and worst things about the masculine gender role and the feminine gender role? Would the world be better if everyone were androgynous? Why or why not? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  14. Sex Differences • Physical anatomy: height, weight, body build, reproductive organs • Functional and structural brain differences: • hypothalamus • corpus callosum • cerebral hemispheres ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  15. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  16. Gender Differences • Cognitive abilities • Women score higher on verbal skills. • Men score higher on math and visuospatial skills. • Aggression • Men exhibit greater physical aggressiveness. • Women are supposedly higher on relational aggression, but no clear differences. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  17. Pause and Reflect: Check & Review • _____ combines characteristics typically male (assertive) with those considered typically female (nurturing). • _____ suggestschildren form gender schemas (mental images) of correct behaviors for boys versus girls. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  18. Havelock Elliswas one of the earliest physicians to scientifically study human sexuality. He emphasized: that nocturnal emissions were not dangerous. the need for reliable and accurate sex information. The Study of Human Sexuality ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  19. The Study of Human Sexuality • Alfred Kinsey wasamong the first touse surveys and interviews to study sexual practices and beliefs. • Masters and Johnsonwereearly scientists who used laboratory experimentation and direct observation to study the sexual response cycle. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  20. The Study of Human Sexuality: Gender and Cultural Diversity ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  21. Sexual Behavior: Sexual Arousal and Response • Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle • Excitement Phase:increasing levels of arousal and engorgement • Plateau Phase:leveling off of high arousal • Orgasm Phase:pleasurable release of tension • Resolution Phase: return to nonaroused state ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  22. Sexual Behavior: Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories) Why are men commonly believed to have greater sexual drive, interest, and activity compared to women? Two theories: 1. Evolutionary Perspective:Provides adaptive value. Multiple partners maximize a man’s genes chances for survival; a woman’s genes chances increase with a good protector and provider. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  23. Sexual Behavior: Gender and Cultural Diversity (Two Theories Continued) • 2. Social Role Approach:Sex differences reflect cultural roles and division of labor. Men are seen as protectors and providers. Women are seen as child bearers and homemakers. • Note: Social role perspective fits better in cultures where women have less reproductive freedom and educational equality. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  24. Sexual Behavior: Sexual Orientation • Myths of Homosexuality: • Seduction theory--gays and lesbians seduced in childhood by adults of same sex • “By default” theory--gays and lesbians unable to attract partners of opposite sex • Poor parenting--gay men = domineering mothers, weak fathers; lesbian women = weak or absent mothers • Modeling theory--children imitate gay or lesbian parents ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  25. Sexual Behavior: Sexual Orientation • Current Research on Homosexuality: • Genetics--twin studies suggest hereditary influence on sexual orientation • Prenatal hormones--affect fetal brain development and sexual orientation • Note: Ultimate causes of sexual orientation unknown, but genetics and biology are believed to play dominant roles. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  26. Pause and Reflect: Check & Review • Briefly explain the two theories regarding why men seem to have greater sexual drive, interest, and activity than women. • The ultimate causes of sexual orientation are unknown, but _____ and _____ are believed to play dominant roles. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  27. Sexual Problems: Biological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions • Sexual Behavior: arousal of peripheral sex organs, spinal cord, and brain. Factors that modulate activity within these areas may impair sexual function • Sexual Arousal: activation within parasympathetic nervous system, which allows blood flow to sex organs • Sexual Orgasm: activation of the sympathetic nervous system. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  28. Sexual Problems: Psychological Factors in Sexual Dysfunctions • Negative Gender Role Training: men aggressive and independent, women passive and dependent • Double Standard: male’s sexuality encouraged and female’s discouraged • Unrealistic Sexual Scripts: socially dictated “appropriate” behaviors limit sexual relations • Performance Anxiety: fear of not meeting partner’s sex expectations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  29. Sexual Dysfunctions • Male Sexual Problems • Erectile Dysfunction: impotence (inability to maintain an erection firm enough for intercourse) • Premature Ejaculation: rapid ejaculation beyond the man’s control ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  30. Sexual Dysfunctions • Common Female Sexual Problems: • Orgasmic Dysfunction: inability or difficulty in reaching orgasm • Vaginismus: painful contraction of the vaginal muscles ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  31. Sexual Dysfunctions (Continued) • Common Male and Female Sexual Problems: • Dyspareunia: painful intercourse • Inhibited Sexual Desire: apathetic or disinterested in sex • Sexual Aversion: avoids sex due to overwhelming fear or anxiety ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  32. Sexual Problems—Sex Therapy • Masters and Johnson’s sex therapy program founded on four principles: • Relationship focus • Integration of physiological and psychosocial factors • Emphasis on cognitive factors • Practice with specific behavioral techniques ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  33. Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking • If you or a partner were experiencing sexual problems, would you seek the help of a sex therapist? Why or why not? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  34. Sexual Problems: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  35. Sexual Problems--AIDS • HIV Positive: being infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): HIV destroys immune system’s ability to fight disease • Note: Although AIDS is transmitted only through sexual contact or exposure to infected bodily fluids, many people still have irrational fears of contagion. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

  36. Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 11: Gender and Human Sexuality Karen Huffman, Palomar College ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)