ADRESS FORMS AND POLITENESS. Second person- used when the subject of the verb in a sentence is the same as the individual to. whom the speaker is addressing him or herself.
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Second person- used when the subject of the verb in a sentence is the same as the individual to
Brown and Gilman(1972, discussed in Fasold 1990) proposed that the evolution of pronominal address forms reflects sociocultural change over time
=is basically one of sociolinguistic competence, which is the knowledge a speaker has of how to use the
language varieties in his or her linguistic repertoire, and involves the following components:
4. Person- age/kin/generation/sex/marital status
5. Cognitive-whether the name of the addressee is known is a factor, as well as the familiarity the person has with the rules appropriate for a given social
6. Cultural-the identity set of titles available varies from culture to culture (and of course from language to language)
Pragmatics- the use of context to make inference about meaning of a linguistic structure
Formality- do not impose; remain aloof
Hesitancy- give the addressee his or her option
Equality- treat the addressee as equal
4.Maxim of Manner- Make your contribution perspicuous, by avoiding obscurity, ambiguity, prolixity and disorderliness
Conversational implicature- The maxims allow for interpretation of an utterance
Three expectations in conversational implicature that allow for interpretation once the speaker appears to have violated the maxim
1. The speaker expects to be seen as cooperative.
3. The speaker expects the hearer to assume cooperation and to interpret the violation on that basis.
1.tact- minimize cost and maximize benefit to other
2. generosity-minimize benefit and maximize cost to self
3. approbation-minimize criticism and maximize praise of other
Goals are related to avoiding loss of face. Numerous acts are face-threatening:
Negative face- territoriality, freedom of action and freedom from imposition;
A request impedes on another’s freedom
Positive face- positive self image, desire for approval; contraction by another calls into question one’s positive self image
suggests. steps 1-3
•Step 7: Make inferences from 1-6 regarding possible primary illocutions.
•Step 8: Use background information to establish the primary illocution