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ADRESS FORMS AND POLITENESS. Second person- used when the subject of the verb in a sentence is the same as the individual to. whom the speaker is addressing him or herself.

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Adress forms and politeness

ADRESS FORMS AND POLITENESS

Second person- used when the subject of the verb in a sentence is the same as the individual to


whom the speaker is addressing him or herself.

Brown and Gilman(1972, discussed in Fasold 1990) proposed that the evolution of pronominal address forms reflects sociocultural change over time


American english address
American English Address

  • FN- first name, used among friends or acquaintances

  • TLN- title plus last name, used to address those higher in rank or older

  • LN- last name, a less formal address used by superiors or coworkers to show either



language varieties in his or her linguistic repertoire, and involves the following components:

  • Social- these are the aspects of the social domain

  • Place- the physical location of the interaction


3. Context- the situational status, ranging from intimate to formal

4. Person- age/kin/generation/sex/marital status

5. Cognitive-whether the name of the addressee is known is a factor, as well as the familiarity the person has with the rules appropriate for a given social


Context formal

6. Cultural-the identity set of titles available varies from culture to culture (and of course from language to language)


Politeness and pragmatics
Politeness and Pragmatics formal

Pragmatics- the use of context to make inference about meaning of a linguistic structure

Formality- do not impose; remain aloof

Hesitancy- give the addressee his or her option

Equality- treat the addressee as equal


Cooperative principle
Cooperative principle formal

  • Maxim of Quantity- Make your contribution no less and no more informative than required by the purposes of the conversational exchange

  • Maxim of Quality- Make your contribution truthful

  • Maxim of relevance- Make your


contribution relevant to the conversation formal

4.Maxim of Manner- Make your contribution perspicuous, by avoiding obscurity, ambiguity, prolixity and disorderliness

Conversational implicature- The maxims allow for interpretation of an utterance


that goes beyond literal meaning formal

Three expectations in conversational implicature that allow for interpretation once the speaker appears to have violated the maxim

1. The speaker expects to be seen as cooperative.


2. The hearer expects that the violating speaker is being cooperative

3. The speaker expects the hearer to assume cooperation and to interpret the violation on that basis.


Five characteristics of conversational implicature
Five characteristics of conversational implicature cooperative

  • Everyone recognizes the cooperative principle

  • Literal comprehension of an utterance precedes the interpretation of the meaning

  • Implicatures vary depending on the assumptions of the speaker in question


  • Implicatures can be cancelled. cooperative

    Leechas Maxims:

    1.tact- minimize cost and maximize benefit to other

    2. generosity-minimize benefit and maximize cost to self

    3. approbation-minimize criticism and maximize praise of other


4. modesty- minimize praise and maximize criticism of self cooperative

Goals are related to avoiding loss of face. Numerous acts are face-threatening:

Negative face- territoriality, freedom of action and freedom from imposition;

A request impedes on another’s freedom


Positive face- positive self image, desire for approval; contraction by another calls into question one’s positive self image


Speech act
Speech Act contraction by another calls into question one’s positive self image

  • Is a technical term in linguistics and the philosophy of language

  • Refers to the act of successfully communicating an intended understanding to the listener


Some typical speech acts
Some typical Speech Acts contraction by another calls into question one’s positive self image

  • Warning

  • Informing

  • Promising

  • Questioning

  • Answering

  • Greeting

  • Challenging


Classification illocutionary acts
Classification illocutionary acts contraction by another calls into question one’s positive self image

  • Assertives= speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed propositon

  • Directives= speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action

  • Commisives= speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action



Analysis using searle s theory
Analysis Using Searle’s Theory attitudes and emotions towards the proposition

  • Step 1: Understand the facts of the conversation.

  • Step 2: Assume cooperation and relevance on behalf of the participants

  • Step 3: Establish factual background information pertinent to the conversation.



suggests. steps 1-3

•Step 7: Make inferences from 1-6 regarding possible primary illocutions.

•Step 8: Use background information to establish the primary illocution


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