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implications of levels of learner expertise for instructional methods slava kalyuga
Implications of levels of learner expertise for instructional methodsSlava Kalyuga

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide2

ContentBrief overview of our cognitive architectureOrganized knowledge base and cognitive loadWhat instructional methods are best for whom? (Expertise reversal effect)Instructional implications and research problems

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

review of our cognitive architecture
Review of our cognitive architecture

Cognitive studies of expertise:

Knowledge base in LTM is central to cognitive processing

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

review of our cognitive architecture1
Review of our cognitive architecture

Knowledge base in LTM affects the way we process information in WM and solve problems:

Novices: weak problem-solving methods

Experts: retrieval and application of previously acquired LTM knowledge structures

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

organized knowledge base and cognitive load
Organized knowledge base and cognitive load

WM is very limited when dealing with novel information(novices)

WM has no known limits when dealing with information that has been organized and stored in LTM(experts)

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

organized knowledge base and cognitive load1
Organized knowledge base and cognitive load

Long-Term Working Memory (LTWM)

Executive function of LTM knowledge structures

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

what instruction is best for whom expertise reversal effect
What instruction is best for whom? (Expertise reversal effect)

Instructional designs or procedures that are effective for novices may be ineffective for more expert learners

Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38, 23-31

Kalyuga, S. (2005). Prior knowledge principle. Chapter in Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Cambridge University Press.

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide13

What instruction is best for whom? (Expertise reversal effect)

Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2000). Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 1-11

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide15

What instruction is best for whom? (Expertise reversal effect)

Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1998). Levels of expertise and instructional design. Human Factors, 40, 1-17.

Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001).When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 579-588.

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide16

5

. To cease operation of the light the

stop push button is pressed. The circuit

2

. Pressing down the start push

in the Starter is now open, the coil is no

button closes the circuit and allows

longer energised and the switch returns to

the current to flow through the coil.

its normal open position.

Start

Stop

A

N

coil

1

. The Starter consists of

a start push button, a stop

.

3

. The energised coil closes

push button and a switch

the switch, which provides

activated by the coil.

an alternative closed circuit

for the coil to that provided

by the start push button.

This circuit acts as a

switch

holding one: the start push

light

button now can be released

4

. The light is operational, as the

without breaking the current

closed switch provides a closed

flow through the coil.

circuit for it.

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide25

Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2001). Learner experience and efficiency of instructional guidance. Educational Psychology, 21, 5-23.

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide29

What instruction is best for whom? (Expertise reversal effect)

Instructional techniques and procedures need to change dynamically with alterations in expertise.

Previous ideas (Aptitude-Treatment Interactions) and recent developments.

EARLI 2005: P. Ayres; R. Atkinson; R. Bruenken;

A. Renkl; N. Schwartz.

Mk

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide30

What instruction is best for whom? (Expertise reversal effect)

Adaptive learning environments (tutors in algebra and kinematics) were compared to equivalent tutors without real-time adaptation of instruction to the level of learner knowledge

Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2004, 2005), Kalyuga (submitted)

ICLEPS 29 August 2005

slide31

Instructional implications and research problems

  • more efficient instructional design
  • decisions (micro- a macro- levels)
  • adaptive e-learning with optimized
  • cognitive load (learning without ‘headache’):
  • efficiency-based approach
  • overcoming the narrow view of expertise
  • and organized knowledge structures
  • role of constructive (germane) cognitive
  • load and motivation in expertise acquisition

ICLEPS 29 August 2005