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An Era of Social Change: The 1960s & 1970s. Unit 13: The Tumultuous Sixties RUSH Mrs. Baker. How much can a society change???. During the 1960s and 1970s the following groups sought radical change: Latin Americans Native Americans Women Disabled Young people Environmentalists.

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an era of social change the 1960s 1970s

An Era of Social Change:The 1960s & 1970s

Unit 13: The Tumultuous Sixties


Mrs. Baker

how much can a society change
How much can a society change???
  • During the 1960s and 1970s the following groups sought radical change:
    • Latin Americans
    • Native Americans
    • Women
    • Disabled
    • Young people
    • Environmentalists
who are the latinos
Who are the Latinos?
  • Latinos, or Americans of Latin American descent.
    • Large and diverse group
  • During the 1960s the Latino population grew from 3 million to more than 9 million.
    • Mexican Americans make up the largest portion of the Latin American population.
      • Known as Chicanos
      • Live mostly in the Southwest and California.
    • Other Latin American groups came from:
      • Puerto Rico
      • Cuba
      • Central America
      • Dominican Republic
      • South America
struggles of the latinos
Struggles of the Latinos
  • Latinos were often encountered ethnic prejudice, discrimination and were denied equal opportunities in:
    • Employment
      • Jobless rate was nearly 50% higher then that of the whites.
    • Education
    • Housing
      • Most lived in segregated barrios
        • Spanish speaking neighborhoods
  • During the 1960s, Latinos demanded both equal opportunity and respect for their culture and heritage as the population continued to grow.
the farm worker movement
The Farm Worker Movement
  • In the early 1960s, large numbers of Chicanos were employed as farm workers, often as migrants.
  • These workers experienced:
    • Poor pay
    • Hazardous working conditions
    • Discrimination
  • Cesar Chavez emerged as the movement leader.
    • Believed that farmers had to unionize to gain strength at the bargaining table.
united farm workers organizing committee ufwoc
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
  • Founders:
    • Cesar Chavez
    • Dolores Huerta
  • Chavez and his fellow organizers insisted that California’s large fruit and vegetable companies accept their union as the bargaining agent for the farm workers.
  • In 1965, California grape growers refused to recognize the union
    • Chaves organized a nationwide boycott of the companies grapes.
      • Used nonviolence to reach the goals of the boycott.
    • In 1970 the boycotts finally paid off and farmers received higher wages and other benefits long denied.
latino victories in the 1960s
Latino Victories in the 1960s


Under leadership of Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers union made important financial, health, and safety gains for farm workers.


Voters elected Texans Henry Gonzalez and Eligio de la Garza to the House of Representatives. Joseph Montoya of New Mexico was elected to the Senate.

Civil Rights:

Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund helped Mexican Americans gain civil rights and encouraged Mexican American students to become lawyers.


Militant Mexican-American students secured the creation of new programs to decrease the number of Latino drop outs and the establishment of new Chicano studies programs at colleges and universities.

the 20 th century native american
The 20th Century Native American
  • 1924
    • Native American gained full citizenship
  • 1934
    • Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler-Howard Act) was created by FDR under his New Deal legislation.
      • Revised earlier government policies to rebuild tribes and promote tribal cultures.
  • As the circumstances of Native Americans improved, their population began to increase.
conditions of the native americans
Conditions of the Native Americans
  • Unfortunately conditions for many Native Americans remained poor.
    • Poorest group in America
    • Suffered from alcoholism and tuberculosis
      • Alcoholism and suicide highest amongst ethnic groups in America
    • Death rate was double the average of white Americans
    • Per capita income well below the poverty level
    • Unemployment rates higher then the national average
    • High school drop out rates near 50%
attempts at assisting the native americans
Attempts at Assisting the Native Americans
  • In the early 1950s, Congress enacted legislation to lessen government control over reservations
    • Led to the loss of property by many Native Americans
    • Forced some onto welfare
  • During LBJ’s administration, the government tried to improve conditions by starting new programs to:
    • Raise the standard of housing
    • Provide medical facilities, education institutions, and vocational training.
native americans organize
Native Americans Organize
  • Native Americans began demanding greater responsibility in making decisions that affected their lives.
    • Native Americans took inspiration from the African American civil rights movement.
  • They began to call for “Red Power”
    • Formed the American Indian Movement (AIM)
      • Militant Native American rights organization
      • Demanded that Native American lands, burial grounds, and fishing and timber rights be restored.
native americans take action
Native Americans Take Action
  • 1969 – seized Alcatraz Island in San Francisco
    • Demanded it be turned into an Indian cultural center
  • 1972 – “Trail of Broken Treaties” march
    • AIM members occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs in D.C.
    • Demanded rights and property guaranteed to them under earlier treaties
  • 1973 – AIM members occupied the reservation village of Wounded Knee, SD
    • Take over lasted 2 months.
    • Demanded changes in policies towards Native Americans
native american victories
Native American Victories
  • Indian Self-Determination and Education Act (1975)
    • Gave Native Americans more control over reservations
  • Created new cabinet post
    • Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs
      • Protect the interests of Native Americans
  • New York State and Native Americans
    • County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State (1985)
      • Supreme Court ruled that Native Americans had a right to sue to enforce their original land rights.
      • Court further stated that New York’s purchase of 872 acres from the Oneida tribe in 1795 was illegal because it was neither witnessed by federal agents or approved Congress.
  • By 1989, Native Americans had been awarded more than $80 million as compensation for lost land.
the background of the women s rights movement
The Background of the Women’s Rights Movement


New Goals

1884: Seneca Fall Convention

Declaration of Sentiments

1920: 19th Amendment

1940s: Women entered work force during WWII

Rosie the Riveter

More job opportunities

Equality of pay with men

End to discrimination based on sex.


the new women s movement
The NEW Women’s Movement
  • Feminism is the theory behind the women’s movement of the 1960’s
    • Feminism is the belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men.
  • Movement was spurred by the political activism of the times and…
    • The Feminine Mystique
      • Written by Betty Friedan
  • Movement saw many enduring political and social gains for women.
    • But suffered many setbacks as women sought to ensure equality in the constitution.
the feminine mystique
The Feminine Mystique
  • Book which captured the discontent that many women were feeling.
  • Argued that society had forced American women out of the job market and back into the home after WWII
    • Stated that not all women were happy with the role of homemaker
    • Demanded greater job opportunities for women
  • Book became quickly a best-seller and solidified the feelings and sentiments of women across the nation
social gains
Social Gains…
  • Creation of National Organization of Women
    • NOW
      • Pushed for legislation guaranteeing equality for women
  • Militant Movement – New York Radical Women
    • Staged a protest at the Miss American Pageant
      • Crowned a sheep as “Miss America”
  • Gloria Steinem – journalist, political activist & supporter of women’s liberation movement
    • Created Ms. Magazine
      • Focused on the desire to look at contemporary issues from a feminist perspective
political gains
Political Gains…
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 – barred job discrimination based on gender, national origin or religion
      • Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
  • Title IX (Educational Amendment Act of 1972)
    • Gave female college athletes the right to the same financial support for male athletes
    • Ban gender discrimination of any school receiving financial aid
judicial gains
Judicial Gains..
  • Roe v. Wade (1973)
    • Supreme Court ruled that a woman’s right to terminate a pregnancy is constitutionally protected.
      • Women had right to choose an abortion during the first three months of their pregnancy. (1st trimester)
        • 2nd trimester abortions must be determined by the doctor for medical reasons.
      • States could only limit abortion after the first six months. (3rd trimester)
  • Equal Rights Amendment (1972)
    • “Equal rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or any state on account of sex.”
      • Required 38 states for ratification
    • Opponents
      • Phyllis Schlafly
        • Religious conservative who did not support the addition of the ERA to the constitution.
      • Felt women’s rights movement led to rising divorce rates, increased abortions, and a growing acceptance of homosexuality
        • Threatened traditional values of the American family.
  • At the 1982 deadline, the ERA failed to receive the necessary votes needed for ratification.
    • Law was defeated.
new programs for people with disabilities
New Programs for People with Disabilities
  • Presidential Commission on Medical Retardation.
    • Established by JFK to study and highlight the problems of the mentally handicapped individuals in American society.
  • Establishment of the Special Olympics
  • Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
    • Barred discrimination against people with disabilities in any programs, activities, and facilities that were supported by federal funds.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
    • Ensured a free, appropriate education for children with disabilities, including special education, and related services.
american with disabilities act of 1990
American with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Prohibited the discrimination in employment, public accommodation, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
  • Benefits of the act included:
    • Greater accessibility to public buildings and transportation for people who use wheelchairs
    • Availability of electronic devices to allow hearing-impaired people to use telephones and enjoy movies.
  • Result of the activism of:
    • Disabled Vietnam veterans
    • Celebrities
      • Christopher Reeves
      • Michael J. Fox
the counterculture
The Counterculture
  • Counterculture
    • Movement made up mostly of white, middle-class college youths who had grown disillusioned with the war in Vietnam and injustices in America during the 1960s.
      • The turned their backs on traditional America and tired to establish a whole new society based on peace and love.
  • Defined by historian Theodore Roszak as
    • A group that takes on the “alarming appearance of a barbarian intrusion.”
      • What do you think Roszak meant by this statement?
beliefs of the movement
Beliefs of the Movement
  • Movement shared some of the same beliefs as the New Left movement.
  • Felt that American society and its materialism, technology, and war had made people grow hollow.
  • Embraced the idea of “Tune in, turn on, drop out”
    • In the mid to late 1960s, tens of thousands of idealist youths left school, work, or home to create what they hoped to be an idyllic community of peace, love, and harmony.
the hippie culture
The Hippie Culture
  • Hippie
    • Members of the counterculture movement
  • Era known as the “Age of Aquarius”
    • Marked by:
      • Rock ’n’ roll music
      • Outrageous clothing
      • Sexual license
      • Illegal drugs
        • Marijuana
        • New hallucinogenic – LSD
    • Turned to Eastern religions to learn to attain enlightenment through meditation.
    • Joined communes
      • Haight-Ashbury
decline of the movement
Decline of the Movement
  • Counterculture’s peace and harmony gave way to violence and disillusionment.
    • Urban communes became dangerous places to live.
    • Lacked proper guidance in how to live.
    • Communal living did not provide enough to survive.
    • Many fell victim to the drugs they used
      • They experienced addiction and mental breakdowns
a changing culture
A Changing Culture
  • The greatest impact of the counterculture movement was the changes in the arts and social attitudes.
  • Art
    • Andy Warhol
      • Creator of pop art
a changing culture1
A Changing Culture
  • Rock music
    • Rock’n’roll became the symbol of the counterculture movement.
    • Greatest influence that helped propel rock music into the mainstream were the Beatles.
    • Woodstock was influential as well.
      • Peaceful and well-organized music and arts festival in Woodstock, NY