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Cognition. Joey Watson. VII. Cognition. Memory Language Thinking Problem Solving and Creativity. Memory:. 3 storage units: Sensory perception to memory; iconic (visual) tenths of second or echoic (auditory) few seconds Short Few seconds to a minute 7 items +- 2

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Joey Watson

Vii cognition
VII. Cognition

  • Memory

  • Language

  • Thinking

  • Problem Solving and Creativity


  • 3 storage units:

    • Sensory

      • perception to memory; iconic (visual) tenths of second or echoic (auditory) few seconds

    • Short

      • Few seconds to a minute

      • 7 items +- 2

      • Maintenance rehearsal- keep something in short term memory long enough to be used

      • Elaborative rehearsal- organizing and understanding info to remember it

    • Long

      • Permanent retention

      • Episodic memory- events experienced

      • Semantic memory- facts figures and general knowledge

      • Procedural memory- skills and habits


  • Sound to communicate ideas

  • Phonemes- smallest units of speech sounds distinct from one another

  • Morphemes- smallest semantically meaningful parts of language

  • Syntax- rules used for arrangement of morphemes into meaningful sentences

  • Prosody- tone and inflection; added meaning without changing words


  • Stages:

    • Cooing-> Babbling-> holophrases (one word for broad category of things)-> telegraphic speech (two or three word sentences)-> speech

      Noam Chomsky – transformational grammar- differentiates between surface structure of language and deep structure of language


  • Many different types, sometimes overlap

  • Autistic thinking- applies to daydreaming and fantasizing

  • Directed thinking- drawing inferences, problem solving

  • Reasoning- drawing conclusions from evidence

  • Deductive reasoning- drawing logical conclusions from general statements

  • Inductive Reasoning- drawing general inferences from specific observations

Problem solving and creativity
Problem Solving and Creativity:

  • Divergent thinking- brainstorming

  • Convergent thinking- narrowing to 1 choice

  • Heuristics- intuitive rules of thumb

  • Algorithms- systematic mechanical approaches to guarantee eventual answer to problem

  • Insight- sudden understanding of potential strategy to solve problem

Problem solving and creativity1
Problem Solving and Creativity:

  • Wolfgang Kohler- had a chimp in cage with 2 sticks, outside cage were bananas, both too short to reach bananas so combined sticks into 1 to reach bananas –insight

  • Mental set- framed set of mind to approach problem; functional fixedness- tendency to assume item is only useful for task it is designed for

  • Confirmation bias- search for info that supports particular view

  • Creativity – process of producing something novel yet worthwhile; elusive nature