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Risk Analysis and the Security Survey 3rd edition. Chapter 13 Emergency Response Planning. Emergency Response Planning Introduction. Change in focus post September 11, 2001 Ramifications of poor response Comprehensive Emergency Management

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Risk Analysis and the Security Survey 3rd edition


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    1. Risk Analysis and the Security Survey 3rd edition Chapter 13 Emergency Response Planning

    2. Emergency Response PlanningIntroduction • Change in focus post September 11, 2001 • Ramifications of poor response • Comprehensive Emergency Management • Services not available post disaster to businesses – assumption that they have resources

    3. Emergency Response PlanningIntroduction • Must have response capability: • Required by Fed OSHA • Many States require response planning • Requirement under NFPA 1600 • Civil liability • NFPA sec 1600 recognized as the National Preparedness Standard • Businesses held liable

    4. Introduction • National Response Plan based on NIMS • National Incident Management System • Incident command system • Preparedness • Communications and information management • Supporting technologies • NIMS provides a template to prevent or respond to threats and incidents

    5. NIMS- Incident Command System • System used to manage response to an emergency • Primarily field response • Relies on Management by Objectives • Senior responder sets objectives after subordinates communicate that they can be met • Small Span of Control • Small incident 8 – 1 commander • Complex incidents 5-1

    6. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • Five Major Functional Units: • Incident Command • Operations • Planning and Intelligence • Logistics • Finance and Administration • Not all sections need activation for a small incident

    7. Emergency Response PlanningIntroduction

    8. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • Command • Incident Commander (IC) has overall responsibility • Establishes objectives and priorities • Role filled by: • First to arrive then relieved by the senior commander • Establishes a command Post (CP) • Management must delegate authority to IC before an incident

    9. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • Duties of the IC include: • Field management of the emergency • Coordination with the emergency operations center (EOC)or other IC’s • Ultimate responsibility for safety • Approval of all plans and resources • Setting objectives and priorities • Delegating authority as necessary • Primary responder until others arrive

    10. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • IC may establish the following positions • Public Information Officer (PIO) • PR to new media • Safety Officer • Monitors safety • Ensures compliance • Safety of all personnel • Liaison Officer • Assists the IC with coordination with other agencies

    11. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • Operations section: • Implements action plans and objectives issued by the IC • ‘Reality’ checks goals • Direct necessary resources • Provide status reports to IC

    12. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • Planning and Intelligence: • Develop incident action plans to implement the goals of the IC • Determines necessary resources • Analyzes conditions and incident scope • Predict changing conditions • Prepare contingency plans • Track resources

    13. Emergency Response PlanningIncident Command System • Logistics: • Obtains all resources and services to manage the incident • Finance and Administration: • Maintains history of the response • Tracks and approves expenditures • Produces final cost report

    14. Emergency Operations Center

    15. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Operations Center • The Emergency Operations Center (EOC) directs or coordinates the response of the business recovery • Team members and emergency managers meet to direct or co-ordinate a response • Also called Command Center • Alternate location • Governmental is more resource oriented, business more strategic

    16. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Operations Center • Primary Functions (Governmental EOC): • Coordinate response to large or multiple events • Create or refine policy • Allocate resources • Collect and manage information about the incident, responses, and decisions • Release information to the public • Maintain appropriate records

    17. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Operations Center • Design anticipates complexity of response • Must facilitate the flow of information internally and externally • Should be located in: • Secure, structurally safe building • Centrally located • Easily accessible • EOC can be a large conference room for businesses

    18. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Operations Center • EOC Should Contain: • Extra phone sets jacks • Status boards • Separate work space • Fax machines • Supplies

    19. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Operations Center • Other considerations for EOC • Access control (Security) • No access to media, unauthorized visitors • Back-up power • User Friendly • Designed for continuous operation • Keep operations quiet • Video conferencing capability • Don’t overwork EOC staff

    20. Emergency Response Team

    21. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Response Team • Internal organization of employees • Members are Volunteers from various functions; • Should use an ICS structure

    22. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Response Team • ERT accomplishes the following: • Intervene and stabilize emergencies • Reduce injuries and loss • Prevent adverse publicity • Demonstrate management concern • Minimize environmental impact • Comply with regulatory requirements • Sole Response in a Disaster Situation

    23. Emergency Response Planning Emergency Response Team • Basic Steps to Form Team: • Management Acceptance and Support • Determine Duties and Responsibilities • Develop Response Plans, Policies, Procedures • Determine Equipment and Resource Needs • Recruit team members • Develop training programs • Conduct regular drills • Advertise • Let employees and community know about it

    24. Emergency Response Procedures

    25. Emergency Response PlanningEmergency Response Procedures • Identify characteristic of hazards • Planners can prepare for, mitigate and control consequences. • General guidelines • Not all foreseeable emergencies • Assess situation before response

    26. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Terrorists bombings • Domestic and international • Improvised explosive devices • History and extent of use

    27. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Threat evaluation • Low probability of finding a bomb after a threat is made • Evacuation generally not result • Always search the facility thoroughly

    28. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Credibility and evaluation of the threat based on the Risk Profile of the business • Level of security • Controversial business activity • Recent events • History of bombings and threats • Intelligence • Activity of individuals or groups • Contents of threat

    29. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Evacuation • Controversial and difficult decision • Many security managers will not evacuate a facility unless a bomb is found • Loss of productivity • Decreased morale • Increased possibility of injury by evacuating employees in an unprotected area such as parking lots, hallways, building perimeter • Satisfies intent of the caller

    30. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Typical placement of devices • If a device is found: • Evacuate safe distance or send employees home • Threats • Credible, 30 minutes or less for detonation, delay search and evacuate • Credible, 30 minutes or more for detonation, search

    31. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Searches • Almost always search • Even if a threat is a hoax • Who should search • Calling police or Security personnel • Systematic, rapid, and thorough • Anything out of place, breifcase, package next to the gas main, small pipe • Use of communication devices

    32. Bomb Threats • Searches • Assign specific areas for searches • Search most common accessible areas (building perimeter, public areas • Then areas that provide synergistic effect (hydrogen tank, gas main) • Then areas critical to the business opearations (back up generator, data center) • Then non critical areas or areas difficult to reach

    33. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Device found • Attempt to find owner of suspicious objects • Isolate area • Evacuate • Inform law enforcement • Open doors and windows • Shut off hazardous processes and utilities

    34. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Device found continue • Continue to search for other devices • Do not touch or move the object • Do not cover the object or cut any wires • Do not put the object in water • Activate Crisis Management Plan

    35. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Package bomb • Characteristics: • Unusual postmarks or places of origin • Excessive postage • Incorrect addresses or titles of recipients • Excessive handling, wrapping, taping, or bulkiness

    36. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Smudges and greasy looking spots or areas • Odor of almonds or chemicals • Protruding wire or string • Pinholes– used for arming the device • Prevention and response • Use non – metallic letter openers • Use chemicals to detect bomb residue • If high-risk environment – x-ray machine

    37. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Suicide Bombs • Description– may be people or cars, trucks etc • Perpetratorsdifficult to identify • Response– bomb squad must detonate any un-detonated pieces • Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) • Description– distribute radio-active materials • Capabilities and limitations • Impact of use

    38. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Mitigation • Intelligence program • Engineering evaluations - blast-resistant exterior and architecture • Ventilation systems located away from the ground on the ceiling • Improve fire protection systems • Blast resistant fire protection systems • Locate critical assets away from the perimeter

    39. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Remove hiding places for IED’s • Design crash-through protection • Establish no parking zones • Isolate employee parking • Create space • Other environmental design

    40. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Prevention • Analyze exposure • Auditthe physical security • Physical security • Incoming inspection • Access and internal controls • Threat questionnaires • Trainingon threats, searches, bomb recognition and safety

    41. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Establish who will evaluate threats • Develop relevant procedures • Establish evacuation criteria • Identify search methods and personnel • Identify and prioritize search areas • Establish search tracking procedure • Test all procedures • Review plans and phone numbers often • Understand community’s capabilities

    42. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Response • Record exact time of a telephoned threat • Ask • When will it explode? • Where is it located? • What does it look like? • Why was it placed? • Who is calling?

    43. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Attempt to transfer the call to security or a member of the threat assessment team • Initiate a search- checklist • Make other notifications as appropriate • If a device is found: • Evacuate at least three hundred yards out of the line of sight • Call emergency services (police, fire)

    44. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Identify/evaluate the object • Do not move, dismantle, or use water • Open doors and windows • Isolate (secure) the area from entry • Consider shutting down utilities and hazardous processes • Continue the search

    45. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Relocate vital records and back-up computer systems • Activate the crisis management plan • Stage emergency response equipment and strategic resources • Restrict access to the area • If the bomb explodes – • Remove injured immediately • Do not treat the injured at the blast site

    46. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • If RDD is suspected • Move as far as possible, upwind or go inside • Cover or filter your mouth and nose • Remove clothing and seal it in a plastic bag • Shower to remove dust • Shut windows, outside doors, and dampers • Turn off fans and HVAC • Monitor TV and radio

    47. Emergency Response PlanningBomb Threats • Recovery • Care for the injured • Begin rescue operations • Assess damage • Begin salvage and cleanup • Test for blast damage • Keep employees informed • Provide posttraumatic stress counseling • Begin relocation and reconstruction • Investigate and prosecute every incident

    48. Emergency Response PlanningEarthquake • Causes • Tectonic plates • Fault zones • Measurement • Richter scale • Modified Mercalli Scale

    49. Emergency Response PlanningEarthquake • Effects • Soil conditions • Liquefaction – soil saturated with water • Structures • Infrastructure • Emergency services • Collateral damage • Tsunami

    50. Emergency Response PlanningEarthquake • Forecasting • Mitigation • Understand seismic risk for your area • Identify structural and non-structural hazards • Use sway bracing on automatic fire-sprinkler systems to prevent pipe breakage in an earthquake • Bolt or base isolate tall and heavy objects