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Net Charge Fluctuations in Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions. Henrik Tydesjö. O UTLINE. - The Quark Gluon Plasma - The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) - The PHENIX Experiment - Event-by-Event Net-Charge Fluctuations Simulations PHENIX Analysis.

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slide1

Net Charge Fluctuations

in Ultra-Relativistic

Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

Henrik Tydesjö

slide2

OUTLINE

  • - The Quark Gluon Plasma
  • - The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

- The PHENIX Experiment

  • - Event-by-Event Net-Charge Fluctuations Simulations PHENIX Analysis

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

q uark g luon p lasma
QUARKGLUONPLASMA

At extremely High Densities & Temperatures

Nuclear Matter may undergo a Phase Transition

to a state called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP)

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

q uark g luon p lasma1

DECONFINEMENT

PHASE

TRANSITION

QUARKGLUONPLASMA

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

q uark g luon p lasma2
QUARKGLUONPLASMA

CHIRAL SYMMETRY

RESTORATION

Quark Masses 0

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide6

Phase Diagram of Nuclear Matter

Early Universe

Ultra-Relativistic

Heavy-Ion Collisions

???

QGP

Hadron

Gas

Neutron Stars

???

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide7

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

Brookhaven, Long Island, New York

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide8

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

Au+Au Collisions 100 AGeV per beam

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide9

Collaboration

~ 460 Members

57 Institutions

12 Countries

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide10

Central Magnet

Beam-Beam

Counters

Muon Arm

Spectrometers

Central Arm

Spectrometers

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide11

Central Arms

Charged Particle

Tracking

Electron, Photon

Detection

Hadron Identification

Pad Chambers

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide12

Pad Chambers

  • - Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers
  • - Fine Granularity Pixel Pad Readout
  • - Provide Space Points for
  • Track Recognition

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide13

Readout Card (ROC)

  • - 172,800 Readout Channels
  • - Chip-On-Board Technique
  • Readout Cards (ROCS)
  • Placed on the Chambers
  • - Data Transfer via
  • Fiber Optic Links

Pad Chambers

  • - Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers
  • - Fine Granularity Pixel Pad Readout
  • - Provide Space Points for
  • Track Recognition

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide14

Event Display

Central

Au+Au

Collision

370

global

tracks

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide15

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

Event-by-Event

Net Charge Fluctuationsin Local Regions of Phase Space

Decrease of Fluctuations

proposed as a signal for the QGP

Predictions range up to an 80% reduction

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide16

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

+

+

+

1/3

2/3

1

Hadronization

???

QGP

Pion Gas

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide17

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

Charge Q in each event:

Random Particle Emission:

Normalized Variance:

Variance of Q:

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide18

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

  • 1000 particles per event
  • assigned: charge +1 or –1 ,
  • azimuthal angle 

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide19

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

Charge is globally conserved

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide20

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

Efficiency Dependence

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide21

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

Uncorrelated Background Contribution

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide22

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

Decays of Neutral Resonances (e.g.  , )introduce positive correlations between n+ and n–

width= 30º

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide23

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

Decays of Neutral Resonances

fres = 0.3

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide24

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

SIMULATION

Simple QGP model:

producing 2 or 3 pions, separated in azimuth (Gaussian width=10º)

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide25

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

RHIC 1st run period

~ 500 000 events

|zvertex| < 17 cm

pT > 200 MeV/c

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide26

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

BBCs used for triggering

corresponding to 92%

of inelastic cross-section

Centrality classes

determined from

BBC+ZDC information

5-10%

0-5%

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide27

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

pT ,  ofpositiveandnegative particles

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide28

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

10% most central events

Global Charge

Conservation

Reduction not as large as predicted for QGP

Consistent with resonance gas

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide29

NET CHARGE

FLUCTUATIONS

Fluctuations independent of centrality

10% most central events:

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

slide30

SUMMARY

- An introduction was given to: Quark Gluon Plasma Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) PHENIX Experiment- The behavior of Net-Charge Fluctuations in different scenarios was described in simulations

- Results on Net-Charge Fluctuations in PHENIX was presented: Fluctuation result below pure global charge conservation Reduction not as drastic as predicted for a QGP Consistent with resonance gas prediction

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003

Henrik Tydesjö March 17 2003