What is Domestic Violence? • Domestic Violence is a pattern of behavior used to establish power and control over another person through fear and intimidation, often including the threat or use of violence. • Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior perpetrated by an intimate partner against another. It is an epidemic affecting individuals in every community, regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, nationality, gender, or educational background. • Domestic violence results in physical injury, psychological trauma, and sometimes death. The consequences of domestic violence can cross generations and truly last a lifetime
Domestic Violence Statistics • Estimates of violence range from nearly 1 to 4 million incidents each year • In 2001, women accounted for 85% of the victims • 95% of DV perpetrators are male • Intimate partner violence occurs in one out of every six couples
Do you consider emotional abuse as a form of domestic violence? Yes or No
Understanding Abusive Relationships: the Cycle • The Cycle of Violence • Learned Helplessness • The Survivor Theory • Stockholm's Syndrome
Battered Women Who Kill their Husbands • Relatively few battered women kill their abusers • “Lethality factor” • The Battered Women Syndrome as a defense • “Cooling Off” • People v. Berry, State v. Norman • pp. 298-315 • Critics of the Battered Women Syndrome
Statistics of Using Battered Women Syndrome • Not a successful strategy • Rarely acquitted • Receive harsh sentences • 25 years to life • More likely to receive longer sentences than non-battered women • More likely to receive longer sentences than men using mitigating claims of “heat of passion”
Who is Likely to Be a Victim of DV? • Has been the victim of DV Previously • Member of ethnic minority/immigrant groups • Pregnant • Poor • Limited Support systems • Don’t Speak English • Have traditional beliefs • Younger • Divorced/Separated • Live in rural areas
DV Against Immigrant Women: Statistics • 50% of women reported that violence increased upon coming to the U.S. • Married immigrant women experience higher rates of abuse than unmarried immigrant women-60% to 40%. • 72% of batterers never filed petitions for their wives even though 50% qualified, and those who did file took 4 years to file • Women from societies governed by religious law have special problems-Muslim societies, orthodox Jewish societies.
Statistics Cont. • 81% of Asian women report experiencing intimate violence in the past year. • 27% report emotional abuse. • 16% report being forced to have sex. • 67% “occasionally” experience, 48% experience regularly. • African immigrants victimized at higher rates by family members. • Assaulted at double the rates of other groups. • Highest educated. • 77% of Hispanics indicate they have/someone close to them has been the victim of DV-will be 12.2 million by 2030. • 39% report severe abuse • 50% believe DV is caused by forces beyond batters control. • 20% report being forced to have sex. • 83% indicate they believe a batterer who abuses his wife is more likely to abuse his kids, but only 47% believe DV passes from generation to generation.
Barriers to Reporting • Don’t trust police. • Lack of understanding of American legal system. • Language barriers/Lack of bilingual support systems. • More isolated than the average woman. • Lack of community ties. • Low education level. • No personal funds. • Stigma of admitting marital problems.
Relief Available • VAWA-civil rights remedies/criminal provisions. • Federalized enforcement of restraining orders, prohibited gun ownership for those convicted of DV offenses, immigration relief. • Political Asylum? Alvarado case. • T & U Visas, VAWA Self Petition. • All of these provide the victim work authorization, permission to be in the U.S., and a pathway to a green card and citizenship. • Minor children also. • Video: Rosa’s Story. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njg4w7UkvrQ
Do you think political asylum should be available for victims of domestic violence?
Strategies for ending DV • Mandatory Prosecution/Arrest? • Training law enforcement? • Court advocates? • Therapy? • Educating Public?
What Would You Do? • Men abusing Women • http://youtu.be/nIEFiHgPPgE • Women abusing Men • http://youtu.be/CRCS6GGhIRc
DV and Entertainment • DV & Sports • http://espn.go.com/espn/commentary/story/_/page/lapchick-111130/the-public-underwhelming-reaction-athletes-assault-women • DV & Television • http://www.the-spearhead.com/2010/01/17/mtvs-domestic-violence-double-standard-and-public-reaction/
DV in the Limelight • Movies and other media with domestic violence themes • Celebrity victims and aggressors • Ike & Tina Turner • Madonna & Sean Penn • Chris Brown & Rihanna • Pamela Anderson & Tommy Lee • Mel Gibson • Halle Berry • Mariah Carey • Bill Clinton • Diane Lane
Stalking • Annually in the United States, 503,485 women are stalked by an intimate partner. • One in 12 women and one in 45 men will be stalked in their lifetime, for an average duration of almost two years • Seventy-six percent of female homicide victims were stalked prior to their death
Some Warning Signs of Violence • Your dating partner is using threats or violence to solve a problem • Frequent calling and texting to check where you are or who you are with or other jealous behavior • Telling you who you can spend time with, what you can do, or what to wear • Name calling, putting you down, embarrassing you, or making you feel bad about yourself • Making threats towards you, your family and friends • Making threats of suicide or self harm • Forcing you to do anything you don’t want to do (OK.Gov)
How to get out • Make a plan • Call a women's shelter. You can remain anonymous and they can help you make a plan. • Leaving • Pack in advance and be sure to leave a bag at a friend’s house and create an extra set of keys to you car and home that you keep outside of the home • Take all important papers and Id’s for you and your children if you have them. • In case of an incident or argument • Try to be in a place with an exit. Preferably one without weapons such as the kitchen. • Identify and practice escaping through possible exits in your home such as windows or other doors. • Pick a few neighbors you can trust. Tell them about the domestic violence and ask them to call the police if they hear a disturbance in your home. • Pick a code word to use with family and friends so that they know when to call the police. • Use your instincts • Try to keep a cell phone with you
VPO’s • If you or your children have been threatened or assaulted, you can request a Victim’s Protective Order. • You can get assistance on how to obtain a Protective Order from your local Domestic Violence Service provider. • Always keep your Protective Order with you. • Call the police immediately if your partner violates the Protective Order. • Think of alternative ways to keep safe if the police do not respond immediately.
How to Help Someone Dealing with DV • Do listen, believe and let the person know that he/she is not alone. • Do recognize the warning signs of an abusive situation for victims (absenteeism, isolation, unexplained injuries…) as for perpetrators (public blames, outburst of anger, attitude of domination…) • Do facilitate the development of a safety plan to protect the victim from the abuser. Domestic violence survivors may be at increased risk for violence when they take steps to leave an abusive partner or to seek legal relief. It is important to develop a safety plan for yourself and your children whether you choose to remain with a partner or are separating. • Don’t underestimate the danger of the situation. • Don’t let the abusive behavior continue in the work place (phone calls to the victim, blames in public, threats...) (from worldbank.org)
Prevention and Treatment • Batterer’s • Domestic Violence can be prevented by counseling and rehabilitating batterers as well. • http://absrehabilitation.com/violence.html • Victim’s • Victims Compensation Information • Your rights as a crime victim • http://www.womenshelters.org/sta/oklahoma
Resources • Resources • The National Teen Dating Abuse Helpline1-866-331-9474 • Oklahoma Safeline1-800-522-7433 (SAFE) • Love Is Respectwww.loveisrespect.org • The Safe Spacewww.thesafespace.org • Centers for Disease Control and Preventionwww.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/datingmatters • www.facebook.com/VetoViolence • http://www.ok.gov/health/Disease,_Prevention,_Preparedness/Injury_Prevention_Service/Intimate_Partner_Violence/index.html