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Expanding West. Questions. What is westward expansion? How did populations change as Americans expanded to the West? What were some of the consequences of westward expansion?. What Started It All. In the early 1800s, beaver furs were highly sought after; used in making hats

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  • What is westward expansion?
  • How did populations change as Americans expanded to the West?
  • What were some of the consequences of westward expansion?
In the early 1800s, beaver furs were highly sought after; used in making hats
    • Whole population killed off in the east
    • Trappers began to move west in order to find more
  • Fur traders and trappers who moved west were known as mountain men
    • Adopted Native American clothing and living
Bringing furs out of the mountains to buyers in the east was expensive
    • As a result, many fur companies moved west to save money
    • Brought more people to the West; eventually began moving into Oregon Territory
the oregon trail
The Oregon Trail
  • 2,000 mile trail from the Midwest to Oregon & California
    • Expensive journey; many dangers
      • Food shortages
      • Weather and landforms
      • Native attacks
  • The Santa Fe Trail was similar and ended in present day NM
  • What reasons can you think of that would explain why so many Americans would journey west?
  • Why would they face so many threats and dangers?
the mormons
The Mormons
  • Officially belonged to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
    • Led by Joseph Smith & Brigham Young
    • Seeking religious freedom in Utah
f o a bellwork
F.O.A. (Bellwork)

Who can translate this expression?

f o a bellwork1
F.O.A. (Bellwork)

What’s happening in this photo?

  • Who is Sam Houston? (8.4 spi 9)
  • What were the causes and effects of America’s war with Mexico? (8.4 spi 9)
this week
This week
  • Today: Texas Revolution notes
  • Tuesday: Texas Revolution timeline
  • Wednesday: Review for LCAP
  • Thursday: LCAP
  • Friday: Mexican-American War
  • Originally, the areas of TX and Mexico belonged to Spain
    • 1821 – Mexico becomes independent and sets up a representative government
    • The new government hired empresarios (agents) to bring people to TX
In exchange for free land, TX settlers had to obey Mexican laws
    • Often didn’t happen; slavery is one example
    • General Santa Anna takes over Mexico
      • Wants to squash the unrest in TX
In 1836, TX declares independence from Mexico
    • Created a constitution like that of the U.S.
    • These actions really upset Santa Anna and he begins getting the Mexican army ready to attack
the alamo
The Alamo
  • Small TX volunteer army fights for nearly two weeks against larger Mexican army
    • All the defenders of the Alamo die
    • “Remember the Alamo!” becomes the war cry of the TX military
a new nation
A New Nation
  • Fighting ends at the Battle of San Jacinto
  • Sam Houston, a TN native, is its first president
    • Davy Crockett
  • Many Americans wanted to annex TX as a state, but not Andrew Jackson
    • New Mexican government would not recognize the TX nation
  • Read pages 350-353.
  • Answer 1-3 all parts on page 353.
acquiring new lands
Acquiring New Lands
  • By the 1840s, many Americans believed it was their manifest destiny (obvious fate) to control all the territory from the Atlantic to the Pacific
    • Most wanted to annex OR and TX
In 1844, Democrat James K. Polk of TN becomes president
    • Narrowly defeats Whig candidate Henry Clay
    • Immediately sets out to gain Oregon
      • 1848 - U.S. & Britain agree on the 49th Parallel for border
America takes TX in 1845; Mexico upset because they see it as being “stolen”
    • Couldn’t get too upset though, because Mexico still had large amounts of land to govern including California
what was california like
What Was California Like?
  • Mexico got rid of the old mission system in its borders
    • Mexico’s government began giving massive amounts of lands to its wealthiest settlers
    • Vaqueros – Mexican “cowboys”
      • Herded animals and taught American settlers their lifestyle
    • Early settlers of CA territory; felt isolated from Mexican government because of the distance between them
    • “Anglos” from America move in; begin calling for CA to become independent
mexican american war
Mexican-American War
  • America tries to buy Mexican lands of NM and CA for $30 million
    • Doesn’t work; Polk sends military to the border to secure it
    • Gen. Zachary Taylor invades Mexico; Polk tells Congress that Mexico invaded America
Over 200,000 volunteer to fight for the U.S.
    • Launch attacks in Mexico, NM, and CA
  • Anglos in CA declare independence
    • “Bear Flag Revolt”
    • Ends with American army claiming CA
end of the war
End of the War
  • Mexico City – Final battle
  • Result – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • Also known as the “Mexican Cession”
    • U.S. gets land; gives Mexico $15 million
Americans wanted a southern railroad in all U.S. territory
    • Gadsden Purchase – Mexico gave U.S. southern parts of modern-day AZ and NM for $10 million
culture clash
Culture Clash
  • As more Americans began to move into old Mexican lands, they began to clash with Mexican settlers
    • Land rights
    • Water rights
the california gold rush
The California Gold Rush
  • For years, the Oregon Trail had been bringing settlers to OR and CA
    • In 1839, Mexico gives John Sutter permission to start a colony in CA
1848 – Gold is discovered on Sutter’s land
    • Wants to keep it a secret, but can’t
    • President Polk doesn’t help
  • 1849 – More than 80,000 miners reach CA looking for gold; nicknamed “forty-niners”
  • Mining towns began to spring up in CA
    • San Francisco is where most miners went; its population increases from 800 to 25,000 in just two years
  • Incoming miners began to prospect for gold; “staking a claim”
life as a miner
Life As a Miner
  • Mining was hard work and very rarely did people get rich
    • Placer mining
  • Some stopped mining for gold and opened other businesses
    • Restaurants
    • Laundromats
    • Hotels
  • Not all miners were American; many came from Europe, South America, and Asia
    • 24,000 Chinese in just four years
  • Immigrants and Californios were often treated unfairly by American settlers
impact on california
Impact on California
  • Due to the population explosion over gold, CA is eligible for statehood just two years after becoming a U.S. territory (1850)
  • Many Californians begin ranching and farming instead of mining; HARD work
westward expansion
Westward Expansion
  • “Manifest Destiny”
  • America acquires new lands in the west
  • New trails are discovered to the west
  • Gold is discovered in CA
  • Native Americans forced off their lands
  • Americans travel west for new land
  • U.S. stretches all the way to the Pacific Ocean
  • CA experiences a population boom