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Introduction to Computer Science

Introduction to Computer Science

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Introduction to Computer Science

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  1. Introduction to Computer Science Kun-Mao Chao (趙坤茂) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Taiwan University, Taiwan E-mail: kmchao@csie.ntu.edu.tw WWW: http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~kmchao

  2. Why is he always smiling? Why is Bill Gates always smiling?

  3. Chapter 1 Introduction

  4. OBJECTIVES Define the von Neumann model and name its components: memory, arithmetic/logic unit, control unit, and input/output. Understand the stored program concept. Understand the sequential execution of statements in a program. Name the components of a computer: hardware, software, and data. Understand the concept of a black box, a data processor, and a programmable data processor. After reading this chapter, the reader should be able to:

  5. 1.1 THE COMPUTER AS A BLOCK BOX

  6. Figure 1-1 Data processor model

  7. Figure 1-2 Programmable data processor model

  8. Figure 1-3 Same program, different data

  9. Figure 1-4 Same data, different programs

  10. 1.2 von NEUMANN MODEL

  11. von Neumann

  12. John Louis von Neumann Born 28 December 1903, Budapest, Hungary; Died 8 February 1957, Washington DC; Brilliant mathematician, synthesizer, and promoter of the stored program concept, whose logical design of the IAS became the prototype of most of its successors - the von Neumann Architecture. About John Louis von Neumann(馮紐曼  有本科普書介紹這位超人)

  13. Figure 1-5 von Neumann model

  14. 四個主要部分 Memory (記憶體) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU, 運算及邏輯單元) Control Unit (CU, 控制單元) Input/Output (I/O, 輸出入) 儲存程式概念 (stored program concept) 循序執行指令 (sequential execution of instructions) von Neumann Model

  15. 1.3 COMPUTER HARDWARE

  16. 電腦 (計算機, Computer)

  17. 螢幕 (Monitor; Screen)

  18. 滑鼠 (Mouse)

  19. 鍵盤 (Keyboard)

  20. 主機 (Computer housing; the computer case; the box)

  21. 印表機 (Printer)

  22. 筆記型電腦 (Notebook)

  23. 無線網卡 (Wireless card)

  24. 個人數位助理 (Personal Digital Assistant; PDA)

  25. 數位相機 (Digital Camera)

  26. 1.4 DATA 我們將在後續的幾章中介紹

  27. 1.5 COMPUTER SOFTWARE

  28. Figure 1-6 Program and data in memory

  29. Figure 1-7 Program made of instructions

  30. 1.6 HISTORY

  31. 算盤 最早的計算工具

  32. Pascaline • 法國數學家 Blaise Pascal 於西元1642年所發明, 是一種加法器

  33. Difference Engine • Charles Babbage 西元1823年所發明

  34. 打孔卡排序工具 • Herman Hollerith 於1890年所發明

  35. 第一部將資訊電子化的特定功能電腦 John V. Atanasoff 和 Clifford Berry於1939年所發明 ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)

  36. Alan Turing在二次大戰時設計, 破解了德國的Enigma密碼 Turing Machine

  37. H.A. Newton  E.H. Moore (1885 Yale Univ.)  Oswald Veblen (1903 U. of Chicago)  Alonzo Church (1927 Princeton)  Bob Ritchie (1961 Princeton)  Webb Miller (1968 Washington)  Kun-Mao Chao (1993 Penn State) Alan Turing & Me Alan Turing

  38. Nobel prize in computer science ACM's most prestigious technical award is accompanied by a prize of $100,000. It is given to an individual selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field. Financial support of the Turing Award is provided by the Intel Corporation. 西元1966年開始 Turing Award

  39. 2002 Winners: Ronald L. Rivest,                          Adi Shamir,                          Leonard M. Adleman Donald Knuth 1974 Steven Cook 1982 Ken Thompson & Dannis Ritchie 姚期智院士在西元2000年時, 獲頒Turing Award Turing Award

  40. RSA encryption --- 1978 Rivest Shamir Adleman

  41. RSA factorization challenges將一個由兩個大質數所乘出來的大數分解回來e.g., 143  11 x 13

  42. 1881988129206079638386972394616504398071635633794138270076335642298885971523466548531906060650474304531738801130339671619969232120573403187955065699621305168759307650257059 US$10,000 –– RSA-576

  43. 25195908475657893494027183240048398571429282126204032027777137836043662020707595556264018525880784406918290641249515082189298559149176184502808489120072844992687392807287776735971418347270261896375014971824691165077613379859095700097330459748808428401797429100642458691817195118746121515172654632282216869987549182422433637259085141865462043576798423387184774447920739934236584823824281198163815010674810451660377306056201619676256133844143603833904414952634432190114657544454178424020924616515723350778707749817125772467962926386356373289912154831438167899885040445364023527381951378636564391212010397122822120720357 US$200,000 –– RSA-2048

  44. 你/妳缺錢嗎? www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/challenges/factoring/

  45. 下週我們會再繼續電腦發展史 下週我們也會談資料表示法及數字表示法 To be continued

  46. 從古至今的計算機發展史 下次我們會給個和計算機發展史有關的作業 先想想看, 讀讀看