cs 611 computer fundamental pc software n.
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  2. BLOCK 1Computer Fundamentals:Hardware & Software | | <document classification>

  3. Definition: An electronic, digital device that stores and processes information. Introduction Final Result (example -Display of image) Digitized Data (1010101010) | | <document classification>

  4. The tool known as ABACUS was the age-old tool used by man to count and calculate was designed and developed by Chinese some 5000 years ago. Blaise Pascal designed a working mechanical calculator in 1642. Gottfried Von Leibnitz a German, modified Pascal’s calculating machine which could multiply numbers directly. In 1833 Charles Babbage an English scientist, designed Analytical Engine using tooth wheels so that it could perform all mathematical operations in a predetermined sequence using a set of operational instructions. History | | <document classification>

  5. Lady Ada Lovelace is considered as the first lady Computer Programmer as she has developed the concept of writing systematic operational instructions for the analytical engine. In 1850 George Boole an English mathematician proposed logic theory of using the binary (two) number system. This number system had (0 and 1). Bool proposed a logic popularly known as Boolean algebra. Computer processors are designed on this system of logic. A statistician Dr. Herman Hollerith, developed a punched card that would contain data coded in form of punched holes. History | | <document classification>

  6. Computers have a very big impact on our day-to-day life. They can be used for a number of applications like: Business Education Research Office Accounting Military Space Entertainment Medical Applications of Computers | | <document classification>

  7. Following are the broad application areas where computers are used extensively Entertainment:It can be used to make cartoon movies, animation and special effects in movies, games etc. Day to day life:Collages, Hospitals, Railway and Airline Booking Systems, Shops, Bank, ATM centers etc. to carry out day to day work. For example:Train ticket bookings can be done with help of computer. Applications of Computers | | <document classification>

  8. Communication:Nowadays Internet is becoming integral part of life to gather information about different topics or to send and receive emails etc. Scientist:use it for research purposes, space programs, nuclear programs etc. Applications of Computers emails | | <document classification>

  9. Speed:Computers carry out the jobs in microseconds or less time. The human beings cannot think of doing the jobs in such speeds. Few lakh calculations can be done in a second Accuracy:While doing a job human being may commit mistakes where as if the data given to the computer is correct then the computer does the job without any mistakes. Efficiency:Unlike the human beings efficiency is very high in computers as it is a machine it does not get tired or bored of doing a job. Storage:Computer has memory in which the data can be stored for future use. For example the details of the students, customers, suppliers etc. can be stored in the computers to be used whenever it is required. Advantages | | <document classification>

  10. Computers cannot think by themselves and they require human direction to perform specific tasks. If the data given is wrong then it gives the wrong result. Instructions given also should be correct that is instead of addition if you ask it to multiply it will multiply. It will not work without electricity. Investment and maintenance in this equipment is also required. Limitations | | <document classification>

  11. First Generation (1940-1956): Vacuum TubesThe computers of this generation were made of vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory Second Generation (1956-1963): TransistorsThe computers of this generation made up of transistors replacing vacuum tubes Third Generation (1965-1971): Integrated CircuitsThe computers of these generations were made up of IC (Integrated Circuits) Fourth Generation (1971): MicroprocessorsThe computers of this generation saw the advent of Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Generations of Computers | | <document classification>

  12. Personal Computers:A microcomputer is the smallest general purpose processing system.Minicomputers:A minicomputer is medium sized computer that is more powerful than a microcomputer. Mainframes computers:Computers with large storage capacities and very high speed of processing. Classification of Computers | | <document classification>

  13. Super computers: These have extremely large storage area and computing speeds, which are many times faster than earlier discussed machines. Laptop/Note Book Computers:These are small in size and weigh few Kgs & you can carry any place. Classification of Computers | | <document classification>

  14. Organization of a Computer Main Memory Input Unit Output Unit Control Unit ALU Secondary Memory | | <document classification>

  15. Any device designed to assist in the entry of data into a computer. Mouse Light Pen Touch Screen Joy Stick Keyboard Scanners Optical Character Readers (OCR) Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) Mark Sense Reader Bar Code Reader Input Unit | | <document classification>

  16. Any peripheral device that converts the stored binary coded data into convenient external forms as text, pictures & Sound 1. Visual Display Unit 2. Printer 3. Speakers Output Unit | | <document classification>

  17. Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU):The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out the arithmetic operations. (Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division) Control Unit:The control unit coordinates the activities of all the other units in the system. Memory Unit:is used to store data temporarily. Central Processing Unit | | <document classification>

  18. The storage capacity of the memory is generally measured in megabytes. 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte (KB) 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte (MB) 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte (GB) | | <document classification>

  19. Memory Memory is the main part of computer where we store our data either for temporarily or permanently There are Two Types of Memory • Primary Memory • Secondary Memory | | <document classification>

  20. Primary Memory We can also called internal memory. This memory consists of semiconductor memory chips and is used to store the data and programs. Two Types of Primary Memory • RAM (Random Access Memory) or Volatile Memory • ROM (Read Only Memory) or Non-Volatile Memory | | <document classification>

  21. This is the permanent memory. But user can delete the data whenever they want. Examples: Floppy disksFixed (hard) disks, Pen DriveOptical disks. Secondary Memory | | <document classification>

  22. Secondary Memory This memory is external memory. This memory can store a large amount of data for permanently. Types of Secondary Memory • Floppy Disk:- A floppy disk is made of flexible plastic material coated with iron oxide. This is used to store data and instructions. We can move the data from one place to another. The Floppy disks are available in two sizes 5.25 inches and 3.5 inches and their capacity range from 360 KB to 1.44 MB per disk. | | <document classification>

  23. 2. Magnetic Disk:- A magnetic disk is circular platter of plastic which is coated with magnetized material. One of the key component of a magnetic disk is a conducting coil named as Head which performs the job of reading and writing on magnetic surface. The head remains fix while the disk rotates for reading and writing operation. | | <document classification>

  24. 3. Winchester Disk:- This is sealed rigid magnetic oxide medium disk, which holds 10 MB to 10 GB of data. These disks are not removable from the drive. | | <document classification>

  25. 4.Magnetic Tape:- Magnetic tapes are mounted on reels or cassette of tape to store amount of data. These are cheaper and removable from the drive. Information retrieval from tapes is sequential and not random. It takes long time for searching. They are low cost, low speed, portable. | | <document classification>

  26. 5.Optical Memories This memory is used to store a very-2 large amount of data. Data is written in optical disk through laser beam. Three Optical Devices • CD-ROM • WORM • Erasable Optical Disk. | | <document classification>

  27. High Speed Memory Cache Memory: These are small fast memories placed between the processor and the main memory. | | <document classification>

  28. Hardware:This comprises the Electronic, Electrical and mechanical components of the machine. Software:Program means the set of meaningful instructions written in a particular order so as to carry out some task. Two important Computer terminologies | | <document classification>

  29. The term computer language includes a wide variety of languages used to communicate with computers. Computer language is a system of communication. The computer languages must have instructions to manipulate input/output, text etc. Computer Language | | <document classification>

  30. These languages are broadly classified as : Machine level language Assembly level language High level language Fourth generation languages Classification of Computer Language | | <document classification>

  31. Machine level language –A program written using binary numbers i.e. 0’s and 1’s specified for the processor’s operation and absolute binary address Assembly level language -Language uses mnemonics or abbreviations to represent a particular operation. High level language - In this, instructions are written in simple English. (Examples: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C, C++ and Java etc Fourth generation languages - These are the application development tools, which improve the efficiency and productivity. Examples: DBMS, RDBMS Classification of Computer Language | | <document classification>

  32. Two kinds of software are: System Software:software control and direct the operation of the computer.Examples - Operating System, Compiler, and Interpreter etc. Application Software: software used for specific applications such as letter typing, accounting, billing and inventory etc. Kinds of software | | <document classification>

  33. Introduction to Operating Systems | | <document classification>

  34. Operating System Operating system is an interface between user and machine. It is an essential component of computer system. The primary objective of an OS is to make computer system convenient to use and utilize computer hardware in an efficient manner. An operating system is a large collection of software which manages resources of the computer system such as memory, processor, file system and input/output devices. | | <document classification>

  35. This is the system software, which acts as an interface between the user and computer. All the computers require operating system without which one cannot work with the computer. Operating system control, co-ordinates, synchronizes all the operations of the computer. Examples:Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS), Microsoft-Windows 98, Microsoft-Windows XP, Microsoft-Windows 2003 Server, UNIX, LINUX etc. Operating System Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS), Microsoft-Windows XP | | <document classification>

  36. Functions Operating Systems The main functions of Operating System are Act as an interface between the user and the computer To monitor the use of the resources of computers (Resources can be hardware or Software) To control and coordinate Input and Output devices It manage the program and data files i.e. to store, to retrieve, to delete files Help the application programs execute commands given by the user | | <document classification>

  37. Examples of OS Examples of operating systems are Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows 2003, UNIX, Linux, Novell Netware, Solaris etc. | | <document classification>

  38. Evolution of Operating System • Serial Processing • Batch Processing • Multiprogramming | | <document classification>

  39. Types of Operating System Different types of Operating Systems • Batch Processing System • Multiprogramming Operating System • Multitasking OS • Multi-User OS • Time Sharing System • Real Time System • Network Operating System • Distributed Operating System | | <document classification>

  40. Multiprogramming Operating System:- The interleaved execution of two or more different and independent programs by the same computer.Multiprogramming is carried by placing the two or more user programs in main memory and executed them concurrently. The CPU switches from one program to another. | | <document classification>

  41. Multi-Processing:- A system that makes the use of more than one CPU is called multiprocessing system. A multi-processing which describe interdependent computers with two or more independent CPU s have the ability to simultaneously execute programs. In this system, instructions from different and independent programs can be processed at the same instant of time by different CPU. | | <document classification>

  42. BLOCK 2Computer Fundamentals: Communication, Networking, Security | | <document classification>

  43. BASIC TERMS • Data are entities that convey meaning. Information is obtained by processing data using desired functions. • Signals are electric or electromagnetic encoding of data,and signaling is propagation of signal along communication medium. • Transmission is communication of data achieved by the propagation and processing of signals | | <document classification>

  44. DATA COMMUNICATION CODES (Data encoding) • Computer manages, store and exchange data using electronic pulses or digital signals 0 or 1 0 1 OFF ON (absence) (presence) • Every char (letter, number, symbols) is composed of a group of bits called codes. | | <document classification>

  45. Data Codes *American Standard code for information interchange **Extended Binary coded decimal interchange code | | <document classification>

  46. Communication Speed or Rate:- • The speed at which two computers exchange or transmit data is called communication rate on transmission speed. • The unit of measurement of speed is measured using bps (bits per second) or baud. | | <document classification>

  47. Private Vs Switched Channels • Private leased lines are permanently connected circuits between two or more points.These lines are available for private use by the leasing party. • Switched lines or dial up lines are available to any subscriber. For e.g. Telephone connection at our home or office | | <document classification>

  48. Analog and Digital Transmission • An analog signal is one that is continuous with respect to time, and may take on any value within a given range of values. • Human voice, video and music when converted to electrical signal using suitable devices produce analog signals. • A digital signal may take on only a discrete set of values within a given range. Most computers and computer-related equipment are digital. | | <document classification>

  49. | | <document classification>

  50. Parallel and Serial Transmission • Parallel Data Transmission:- Multiple parallel lines connecting the transmitting and receiving units. Each wire carries a bit of information. Usually, one character id transferred in one go. • Serial Data Transmission:- Each bit is sent sequentially one after another. It requires one pair of wire conductors receiving and transmitting units. | | <document classification>