Frasier Fir (Fraser) • Flattened needles, 3/4 inch long, blunt or notched at the end, shiny dark green above and silvery below. Needles generally more dense than on the very similar balsam fir. • Fraser fir is a small to medium size tree to 80 feet, with a very narrow, spire-like crown.
Concolor Fir (White Fir) • Flattened needles, silvery blue-green both above and below, 2 to 3 inches long, blunt at the tip, extending at right angles from the twig, often curving upwards. A citrus smell is present when the needle is broken. White bloom may be distributed evenly or may occur in distinct bands on both surfaces.
Young trees are conical. Older trees develop a dome-like crown. • Christmas Trees
Black Gum (Tupelo) • A medium sized tree reaching up to 80 feet tall on moist sites, generally much shorter in the mountains. On younger trees the branches often stand at right angles to the trunk with numerous short, curled spur shoots present.
Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, oblong to obovate in shape with an entire margin, 3 to 5 inches long • Gray-brown and shallowly, irregularly furrowed, on old stems it can become quite blocky, resembling alligator hide.
(Greenbriar) Greenbrier • It is a prickly, woody, vine which can grow thirty feet high if it has a tree to grow on. By itself, greenbrier is usually a small shrub.
The leaves of this vine are heart-shaped and feel leathery to the touch. They grow up to five inches long. Greenbriers are best known for their stems, which are tough and have sharp thorns • Greenbrier has tiny, green flowers which form clusters. It blooms in may or june.
Hackberry • Extremely bumpy bark - bark of the hackberry has corky projections and is often called "warty" • Witches broom • Nipple galls (below)
Hawthorn • Washington Hawthorn may reach 20 feet tall by 15 feet wide when found in the open, often with a multitrunked and arching growth habit at maturity.
Leaves of Washington Hawthorn are alternate, ovate, shallowly five-lobed, doubly serrated, and shiny dark green in summer • The mature bark of Washington Hawthorn is flaky, with brown to gray outer plates and flakes that cover a red-orange interior bark.
Hayscented Fern • Hayscented fern is very common, and it often grows in large colonies, forming a carpet. It can be identified by its lacy, light-green fronds.
Eastern Hemlock • Evergreen, flat, single needles, 1/2 inch long, tapering to a dull point, primarily two-ranked, shiny dark green above, 2 lines of white stomata below. • A medium sized tree with a dense, conical crown, fine branches and a drooping terminal shoot reaching up to 80 feet
Eastern Hemlock • Bark: Initially gray-brown and smooth then turning scaly; older trees are red-brown with wide ridges and furrows
Pignut Hickory • Alternate, pinnately compound, 8 to 12 inches long, with 5 (sometimes 7) leaflets, leaflets are lanceolate and serrate • nut is not ribbed, fairly round but flattened, seed is somewhat bitter; ripening in early fall
Pignut Hickory • Bark: Initially smooth, and light gray, soon developing scaly ridges; the bark on older trees has obvious close interlacing shaggy-topped ridges.Form: A medium sized to large tree capable of reaching over 100 feet tall, with a rounded crown and a straight trunk.
Shagbark Hickory • Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 8 to 14 inches long with 5 (sometimes 7) leaflets, lateral leaflets are obovate to lanceolate, terminal leaflets are much larger than the laterals, margins serrate • Nut: Nearly round, 1 1/2 to 2 inches, with a very thick husk; nut is distinctly 4-ribbed
Shagbark Hickory • Bark: At first smooth and gray, later broken into long, wide plates attached at the middle, curving away from the trunk resulting in a coarsely shaggy appearance.Form: A tall tree reaching over 120 feet tall with a straight trunk and an open round to oblong crown.
Shellbark Hickory • Leaves of Shellbark Hickory are alternate and pinnately compound, one to two feet long, and almost always display seven wide leaflets (rarely five or nine), with fine serrations on their margins.
Shellbark Hickory • often found in moist bottomlands where Shagbark Hickory usually does not grow • The gray bark of Shellbark Hickory has flat ridges and shallow furrows when young and looks exactly like that of Shagbark Hickory at this stage. mature bark barely shows signs of this trait, having scaly ridges and moderate furrows instead. However, some Shellbark Hickories have exfoliating mature bark