Read pgs 347 – 356, 367 – 368, 374 - 375. Ch 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System. Chapter Learning Objectives List the basic functions of the nervous system. Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system. Describe neuroglia and cite their function(s).
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Chapter Learning Objectives
List the basic functions of the nervous system.
Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system.
Describe neuroglia and cite their function(s).
Define a neuron including its characteristic anatomy and functions.
Discuss ganglia; also myelin sheaths.
Classify neurons structurally and functionally.
Explain how nerve impulses travel (use the terms synapse and neurotransmitters).
Identify common neurotransmitters and what they do.
Got nerve cells? There are more nerve cells in the human brain than there are stars in the Milky Way. (BTW, the human brain has about 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons).
Did you know these facts about the life of Einstein’s brain after his death?1. On April 18, 1955 at Princeton Hospital in Trenton, New Jersey , the amazing life of Einstein’s brain ended. 2. His body arrived at the cremation oven incomplete the day he died… it was lacking a brain.3. In a jar of formaldehyde in Dr. Thomas Harvey, the pathologist who performed Einstein's autopsy, stored the brain for his own study. 4. Some say that Einstein offered his brain for research, but the executor of his estate said that Einstein's son Hans made the decision to keep it. 5. When the press soon learned that Einstein's brain had been set aside for study, Dr. Harvey became very protective of the brain… and the attention infuriated the genius’ family.6. Harvey divided the brain into 240 sections, kept in jars at his home. 7. In spite of studying the organ for many years, he published no findings, saying that there was nothing unusual about it. 8. Over time… Harvey offered parts of the brain to researchers, such as Dr. Marian Diamond from UC Berkeley, who reported its interesting features. 9. Dr. Diamond reported the percentage of glial cells … which nourish neurons … in Einstein's brain … contained about 73% more than the average male brain. There had been a greater metabolic need … his brain cells needed and used more energy. 10. In 1996 Dr. Harvey surrendered the remaining pieces of Einstein's brain to Dr. Elliot Krauss, at Princeton Hospital , who donated it to McMaster University where it was described as remarkable.11. Researchers measured a 15% wider than average brain, with the inferior parietal regions on both hemispheres … much more developed than most. Do you think the journey of one genius' brain after death ... can teach the rest of us anything new about intelligence in life...?
Assume that one neuron is about 10 microns long (this is just an example, because neurons come in all different sizes). So, if we line up 100 billion neurons which are 10 microns long . . . (can you do the math?) Try it!
This may help with the math (or not):1000 microns= 1milimeter (mm)10 mm= 1centimeter (cm)100 cm= 1 meter (m)1000 m= 1 kilometer (km)
Instructions: Quickly find and write down the 3 functions of the nervous system. Time: 1 minute
Divided into two principal parts for study purposes:
1. __________ (or afferent) division
a) Sensory afferent fibers – carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain
b) Visceral afferent fibers – transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain
2. _______ (or efferent) division
a) ____________ – mobilizes body systems during activity *more in Ch 14
b) _______________ – conserves energy; promotes housekeeping functions during rest * more in Ch 14
Instructions: In order to help yourself better understand the way the nervous system is divided, take time to complete the following graphic organizer in your notes:
Divided into two what two principal parts?
I. CNS or ________________
This one is further divided into:
This one is further divided into:
Instructions: See practice handout & study guide
Oligodendrocytes – branched cells that wrap CNS ____________
Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes) – surround fibers of the PNS
Satellite cells surround neuron cell bodies with ganglia
Label your practice diagram.
In multiple sclerosis (MS), the ______________ are gradually destroyed and causes short-circuiting and eventually impulse conduction ceases. This autoimmune disease affects mostly young adults.
Symptoms: visual disturbances, problems controlling muscles, clumsiness, speech disturbances, urinary incontinence, and ultimately paralysis
INSTRUCTIONS: What do these structures do? Match the structure with its function. Write the letter of the answer only next to this slide. Estimated Time: 5-6 minutes
a. neurofibril nodes or gaps in the myelin sheath that occur along a myelinated axon
b. rough endoplasmic reticulum
c. short, branching structures responsible primarily for reception or input
d. single structure on each neuron also known as a nerve fiber; generates and transmits nerve impulses
e. neurolemmocytes that surround and form myelin sheaths around the larger nerve fibers in the PNS
f. a portion of a Schwann cell
g. whitish-fatty protein material that protects and insulates fibers and increases the speed of nerve transmission
3. Nissl bodies
4. Schwann cell
5. Node of Ranier
6. Myelin sheath
Check it out: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7134684121021483823&q=neuron+impulse&total=22&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0
Neurotransmitters are essential to the nervous system and brain chemistry. There are more than 50 identified neurotransmitters. We’re going to focus on 4 key ones.