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A public mental health approach to promoting emotional well being in children. Jo-anne Alner Acting Consultant West Sussex PCT and Mental Health Directorate, Department of Health. Public Mental Health . …a definition

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a public mental health approach to promoting emotional well being in children

A public mental health approachto promoting emotional well being in children

Jo-anne Alner

Acting Consultant West Sussex PCT and Mental Health Directorate, Department of Health

public mental health
Public Mental Health

…a definition

“…is the art, science and politics of preventing mental ill health and inequalities through the organised efforts of society:

  • By reducing risk and promoting protective evidence-based interventions
  • In order to improve physical and mental well-being
  • And create flourishing, connected individuals, families and communities

(National Expert Group for Public Mental Health and Well Being, 2008)

a public mental health approach
A public mental health approach
  • Describe the problem– prevalence, risk and protective factors
  • Come up with solutions– evidence-based and cost-effective approaches
  • Address root causes– upstream thinking, wider determinants, inequalities
  • Develop strategies and policy
  • Promote leadership and collaborative working – to achieve change and implement policy
  • Encourage reflective learning and evaluation – and sharing of good practice
slide4

Create flourishing,

connected communities

A Public Mental Health

Framework for Developing

Well–Being

Promote

meaning

and purpose

Reduce

risk

factors

Promote

protective

factors

Develop sustainable, connected communities

Integrate physical and mental health and well-being

Build resilience

and safe, secure base

Ensure a positive start in life

presentation outline
Presentation outline
  • The ‘problem’
  • The vision
  • Overview of the Public Mental Health framework
  • Taking this work forward and next steps
the problem
The ‘problem’
  • Poor mental health contributes significantly to overall health inequalities and the burden of disease
  • Mental health problems have a significant cost impact on society
mental health problems are common
Mental health problems are common
  • 1 in 6 the adult population experiences mental ill health at any one time
  • 10% of children have a mental health problem, many continue to have mental health problems into adulthood
  • 10% of new mothers suffer from postnatal depression
  • 19% of women and 13.5% of men are affected by depression or anxiety at any one time
  • Half of all women and a quarter of men will be affected by depression at some time in their life and 15% experience a disabling depression
  • 4% of population has a personality disorder
  • 1% of population have a serious mental health problem
slide8

UK Disability Adjusted Life Years - WHO, 2002www.who.int/healthinfo/bodestimates/en/index.html

uk disability adjusted life years by mental illness who 2002
UK Disability Adjusted Life Years by mental illness WHO 2002

Total UK DALY due to mental illness is 26.1%, of which the following are the largest contributors:

  • Uni-polar depression – 7.8%
  • Serious Mental Illness – 2.3%
  • Alcohol Misuse – 3.7%
  • Drug Misuse – 2.1%
  • Dementia – 3.7%
slide10

A reflection on

life, death and well-being

  • Vision
  • Improve Health
  • Reduce Inequalities

Promote

well-being

Positive

Outcomes

Health & well-being

Educational achievement

Productivity & efficiency

Safer communities

Social Inclusion

Integrate Well-Being

Promote Physical Health

Promote Mental Well-Being

Promote Social Well-Being

Public Health & Early Prevention

Health Services

Social Health Risk Factors

Mental Health Risk Factors

Physical Health risk factors

Negative

Outcomes

Inequalities in health

Poor education

Reduced productivity

Increased crime

Social exclusion

Reduce

risk factors

Ill-Health

Death

Nurse J, 2006

impact on society
Impact on society

Mental health problems have a significant

cost impact on society

impact on society12
Impact on society

Cost of mental health problems in EnglandSource: Kings Fund 2008

5.3%

deliberate self harm and suicide
Deliberate Self Harm and Suicide

Suicide

  • Accounts for 20% of all deaths among young people aged 15-24
  • ChildLine received 1,265 calls in 2005-2006 in connection with Suicide
deliberate self harm and suicide15
Deliberate Self Harm and Suicide

Deliberate Self Harm

  • < 24,000 teenagers admitted to A&E after self harming each year
  • Estimated 1 in 10 Teenagers Self harm
  • ChildLine received 2,012 calls in 2005/06 in connection with self harm
slide16

The vision

To create flourishing, connected communities

shifting focus from illness to well being
Shifting focus from illness to well-being
  • Mental health more than absence of mental illness
  • Shift from treatment to providing greater focus on promoting well-being in the whole population and early intervention for high risk groups
  • Positive mental health is a key asset which benefits physical health, educational outcomes, families, community safety and the economy
benefits of flourishing
Benefits of flourishing

(Keyes 2007)

  • Fewest missed days of work
  • Healthiest psychosocial functioning,i.e. low helplessness, clear goals, high resilience
  • Lowest cardiovascular disease
  • Lowest number of physical diseases with age
  • Fewest health limitations of activities of daily living
  • Lower health care utilisation
slide19

The mental health spectrum

From: Huppert Ch.12 in Huppert et al. (Eds) The Science of Well-being

Moderate mental health

Mental disorder

Flourishing

Languishing

Number of symptoms or risk factors

slide20

The effect of shifting the mean of the mental health spectrum

From: Huppert Ch.12 in Huppert et al. (Eds) The Science of Well-being

Flourishing

Moderate mental health

Mental disorder

Languishing

Number of symptoms or risk factors

slide22

Create flourishing,

connected

Communities

A Public Mental

Health Framework

for Developing

Well–Being

  • Meaning from Adversity:
  • Post traumatic growth
  • Psychological therapies
  • Positive reflection

Promote

meaning &

purpose

  • Reduce Social Exclusion:
  • Address discrimination and stigma
  • Target high risk groups

Develop

sustainable,

connected communities

Integrate physical

& mental health

& well-being

  • Reduce:
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs
  • Obesity

Reduce

risk

factors

  • Reduce Inequalities:
  • Unemployment
  • Fuel Poverty
  • Homelessness
  • Violence and Abuse
  • Impact of Climate Change

Build resilience

& a safe,

secure base

  • Prevent and reduce impact of
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences:
  • Child abuse
  • Parental mental illness
  • Parental substance misuse
  • Parental Domestic Abuse
  • Household offender
  • Childhood bereavement

Ensure a

positive start in

life

Nurse J

2008

ensure a positive start
Ensure a positive start

Risk factors

  • Adverse childhood experiencesmean people are
    • 12 times more at risk of attempting suicide
    • 10 times of injecting drug use
    • 7 times of being an alcoholic
    • 4 times of being depressed or using illicit drugs
  • Violence and abuse A history of child abuse increases the risk of lifetime prevalence of depression by 1.8 - 2.7 times for women and 1.6 - 2.6 times for men
ensure a positive start24
Ensure a positive start

Risk factors

  • Looked after children are
    • 8 times more likely to develop conduct disorder
    • 3 times an emotional disorder
    • 7 times a hyperkinetic disorder
    • and up-to 5 times more likely to attempt suicide
  • Poor education Those leaving school who are under 15 years of age are 2.5 times more at risk of developing a mental health problem
slide25

Educational

Poster for

Expectant

Mothers

National

Child Welfare

Association

1919

life course benefits
Life Course Benefits

crime smoking drugs depression suicide no quals

Top 50%

(no conduct

problems)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Middle 45%

(some

problems) 1.95 1.24 1.51 1.24 1.69 1.18

Bottom 5%

(conduct

disorder) 4.13 1.59 2.39 1.57 3.00 1.45

build resilience and a safe secure base
Build resilience and a safe secure base

Risk factors

  • Flooding

Increases risk of depression four fold

  • Unemployment‘Economically inactive’ are up to 5.5 times more at risk
  • Fuel poverty 2.3 million vulnerable people live in fuel poverty in the UK, cold homes increase the risk of depression by 50%
  • Violence and abuse

Levels of community violence have increased over last 50 years – associated with mental health problems

slide28

The cycle of violence and abuse across the life-course

Inequalities &Poor Environment

I

N

C

R

E

A

S

I

N

G

A

G

E

Negative Parenting

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Conduct & Emotional Disorders

Risk Behaviours

Violence & Abuse

Poor Mental Health

Poor Physical Health & Socio-Economic

Outcomes

Nurse J, 2008

integrate physical and mental health and well being
Integrate physical and mental health and well-being

Risk factors

  • A meta-analysis found that depression at age 65 was linked with a 70% increased risk of dying early
  • Having a physical Illness increases your risk of developing a mental health problem by 6.4 times

Following a myocardial infarction:

  • A depressed/anxious person with myocardial infarction is up to three times more likely to die within two years
  • An anxious person is up to six times more likely to die of coronary heart disease
slide30

Integrate physical and mental health and well-being

Risk factors

  • Obesity and depressionThe 20-25% of the population who are obese and smoke are concentrated in among the 26% of the population living in poverty, who also have the highest prevalence of depression and anxiety
  • SmokingHaving a mental health problem is associated with a two-fold increased risk of smoking, compared to the non smoking population
slide31

Integrate physical and mental health and well-being

Risk factors

  • Hazardous drinkingA longitudinal study found that in adulthood, especially for women, the risk of developing hazardous drinking increased following two or more stressful life events
  • Alcohol dependencyPeople with a common mental disorder were twice as likely to have dependency on alcohol than those without a mental health problem and for those with a serious mental health problem, it was three times the rate
develop sustainable connected communities
Develop sustainable connected communities

Risk factors

  • Recently released prisoners 35 times more likely to commit suicide if they are female and 8 times if they are male, young offenders 18 times more likely
  • Urban environment Lack of social support increases the risk by two-fold, and a lack of green spaces by 80%
  • Disconnected societies enhance social exclusion
  • Groups who experience discrimination generally experience higher levels of mental health problems
slide33

Create flourishing,

connected

communities

A Public Mental

Health Framework

for Developing

Well–Being

Promote

meaning &

purpose

  • Cultivate purposefulness & fulfilment:
  • In life, work, education and volunteering
  • By creativity, coherence and flow
  • With inclusive beliefs and values

Develop

sustainable,

connected communities

  • Enhance:
  • Community engagement
  • Ecological intelligence and
  • connectedness
  • Improve:
  • Physical
  • activity
  • Healthy food
  • Sexual health
  • Health checks

Integrate physical

& mental health

& well-being

Promote

protective

factors

  • Promote:
  • Employment
  • Benefits checks
  • Safe green spaces
  • Insulated and warm homes
  • Partnership working

Build resilience

& a safe,

secure base

  • Improve:
  • Parenting and parental health
  • Social and emotional literacy in healthy schools
  • Violence & abuse prevention skills
  • Early interventions for conduct & emotional disorders

Ensure a

positive start in

life

Nurse J

2008

ensure a positive start in life key messages
Ensure a positive start in lifeKey messages
  • Majority of mental health problems start in childhood: Up to three quarters of adult mental health problems start in childhood
  • Pre-natal and early life factors are important in influencing well-being
  • Adverse childhood experiences can have long-term negative effects on both physical and mental health

Interventions

  • Positive parenting skills for the whole population and targeted at high risk groups; treat parental mental illness
  • Develop social and emotional literacy skills
  • Develop violence and abuse prevention skills
  • Intervene early with conduct and emotional disorders
build resilience and a safe secure base key messages interventions
Build resilience and a safe secure baseKey messages - interventions
  • Reduce socio-economic inequalities, unemployment and homelessness
  • Reduce community based violence – share information and reduce alcohol

Promote resilience against climate change:

  • Create safe, green spaces: to increase resilience to climate change (aides flood management, reduces heat, improves air quality); and reduces mental health problems
  • Address fuel poverty: insulate homes to increase resilience from heat and cold and reduce CO2 emissions. Warmer homes decrease the risk of depression by 50%
integrate physical and mental health and well being key messages interventions
Integrate physical and mental health and well-being Key messages - interventions
  • Target interventions to risk factors for those with mental health problems
  • Ensure health promotion activities target those withmental health problems
  • Promote mental health in those with physical health problems
  • Develop integrated clinical pathways to the prevention and treatment of physical and mental ill health
slide37

Historically, mental and physical health have been seen

as separate and non- interacting domains,

resulting in separate treatment approaches and policies

Mental

Health

Physical

Health

slide38

In reality, there is considerable overlap and interaction

between physical and mental health

Poor mental health is probably a larger contributor to health risk behaviours and poor physical health than the other way round

Physical

Health

Mental

Health

develop sustainable connected communities key messages
Develop sustainable connected communitiesKey messages
  • Target groups that experience discrimination for interventions to reduce risk factors and promote mental health
  • Apply ecological principles as theypotentially help to increase wider sustainability and a sense of being connected to a community
  • Multiple health benefits of green spaces exist, including mental well-being, reduced violence, increased physical activity, reduced obesity and greater social capital
target groups
Target groups

Target socially excluded and discriminated groups:

  • Those with mental health problems
  • Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
  • Black and minority ethnic groups
  • Looked after children
  • Offenders and ex-offenders
  • Travellers
  • Immigrants and asylum seekers
  • Older people
promoting meaning purpose key messages
Promoting meaning & purposeKey messages
  • Work in partnership to create a vision of well-being
  • Improve access to psychological therapies to help develop meaning from adverse circumstances
  • Promote meaning and purpose within education, work and voluntary community activity
  • Organisations to develop and adopt inclusive beliefs and values
  • Promote activities that develop creativity, coherence and flow
slide42

Create flourishing,

connected

communities

A Public Mental

Health Framework

for Developing

Well-Being

  • Meaning from adversity:
  • Post traumatic growth
  • Psychological therapies
  • Positive reflection

Promote

meaning &

purpose

  • Cultivate purposefulness & fulfilment:
  • In life, work, education and volunteering
  • By creativity, coherence and flow
  • With inclusive beliefs and values
  • Enhance:
  • Community engagement
  • Ecological intelligence and
  • connectedness
  • Reduce social exclusion:
  • Address discrimination
  • and stigma
  • Target high risk
  • groups

Develop

sustainable,

connected communities

Integrate physical

& mental health

& well-being

  • Improve:
  • Physical
  • activity
  • Healthy Food
  • Sexual Health
  • Health Checks
  • Reduce:
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs
  • Obesity

Reduce

risk

factors

Promote

protective

factors

  • Reduce Inequalities:
  • Unemployment
  • Fuel Poverty
  • Homelessness
  • Violence and Abuse
  • Impact of Climate Change
  • Promote:
  • Employment
  • Benefits Checks
  • Safe Green Spaces
  • Insulated & Warm Homes
  • Partnership Working

Build resilience

& a safe,

secure base

  • Prevent and reduce impact of
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences:
  • Child abuse
  • Parental mental illness
  • Parental substance misuse
  • Parental Domestic Abuse
  • Household offender
  • Childhood bereavement
  • Improve:
  • Parenting & Parental Health
  • Social and Emotional
  • Literacy in Healthy Schools
  • Early interventions for conduct & emotional
  • disorders

Ensure a

positive start in

life

Nurse J

2008

taking this work forward
Taking this work forward

…and next steps

  • Summary to be developed and circulated in the New Year for wider consultation – DH, OGDs and National Experts
  • Draft report to be circulated for comments
  • National launch event of final report Spring 2009
  • Key messages to inform New Horizon’s work
  • Comments to Jo.Nurse@dh.gsi.gov.uk
key messages a reminder
Key messages – a reminder

The problem:

  • Poor mental health contributes significantly to overall health inequalities and burden of disease

The vision:

  • To create flourishing, connected communities

Aim of the report:

  • To provide an evidence-based public mental health framework for generating well-being and flourishing within individuals, families, communities and society
key messages a reminder46
Key messages – a reminder
  • Ensure a positive start in life: The majority of mental health problems start in childhood and early interventions to promote well-being have a potentially bigger impact upon overall population well-being.
  • Build resilience and a safe secure base: Everyone needs a home, sufficient income, freedom from violence and a need to develop resilience.
  • Integrate physical and mental health and well-being: Lessons from neuro-science will help transform the way we approach and treat physical and mental health.
  • Develop sustainable connected communities: Socially excluded groups experience more mental health problems and need targeting. Ecological principles can help to increase the feeling of being connected.
  • Promoting meaning and purpose: If we do this in all that we do, we can help people overcome adversity and promote a greater sense of well-being.