Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my
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Obesity, Nutrition, Nutrigenonmics – OH MY!. Karen L. Edwards, Ph.D . Director, UW Center for Genomics and Public Health Department of Epidemiology and Institute for Public Health Genetics School of Public Health and Community Medicine University of Washington. Objectives.

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Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my
Obesity, Nutrition, Nutrigenonmics – OH MY!

Karen L. Edwards, Ph.D.

Director, UW Center for Genomics and Public Health

Department of Epidemiology and Institute for Public Health Genetics

School of Public Health and Community Medicine

University of Washington


Objectives
Objectives

  • Be familiar with the evidence for genetic influences on obesity

  • Be able to define nutrigenomics

  • Understand current limitations of nutrigenomic testing


Outline
Outline

  • Background

  • Genetics of Obesity

    • Animals

    • Humans

  • Environmental effects

  • Nutrigenomics

    • Why the interest?

    • Current products and examples

    • Why the concern?

    • Moving from promise to practice

  • 5. Summary and Conclusions


Public health importance

Mortality

Increased risk of premature death

Morbidity

Diabetes, Heart disease, Hypertension, some Cancers, Breathing Problems, Ischemic Stroke, Arthritis, and Reproductive Complications

Prevalence

59 million (30%) Americans are obese (BMI>= 30)

Rates are increasing faster than ever (epidemic proportions)

Public Health Importance


Risk factors for obesity

Diet: high calorie and low nutrient dense foods

Physical Inactivity

Age

Socioeconomic status

Certain medical conditions and medications

Race

Smoking cessation

Family History

Genetic susceptibility

Risk Factors for Obesity



Evidence for genetic influences humans
Evidence for genetic influences: Humans

  • Familial aggregation

    • - familial clustering of obesity in families

  • Twin Studies

    • - greater concordance among MZ twins compared to DZ twins

  • Family Studies

    • - variety of “statistical models” consistent with genetic influences


The search for obesity susceptibility genes
The Search for Obesity Susceptibility Genes

“I found one! I found one!”

Kenneth M. Weiss & Joseph D. Terwilliger

nature genetics • volume 26 • October 2000


Candidate genes and single gene disorders chromosomal location
Candidate Genes and Single Gene Disorders: Chromosomal Location

Image adapted from:

Loos, R. J. and C. Bouchard (2003). J Intern Med254(5): 401-25.


Genetics of human obesity
Genetics of Human Obesity Location

  • Common form(s) of obesity are likely due to complex interactions between genes and environment

  • - body fat pattern

  • - appetite regulation

  • - other pathways

  • Rare monogenic forms do not account for majority of cases


Trends in obesity
Trends in Obesity Location

From the CDC website: BRFSS Trends Data


Trends in obesity1
Trends in Obesity Location

From the CDC Website: NHANES Study Data



Nutrigenomics
Nutrigenomics Location

  • Integrates genomics and nutrition

  • Goal: Improving health and preventing disease through tailored diet and lifestyle prescriptions



Nutrigenomics vs nutrigenetics

Nutrigenomics Location

“Nutrigenomics refers to the application of genomics in nutrition research, enabling associations to be made between specific nutrients and genetic factors, e.g. the way in which food or food ingredients influence gene expression…Nutrigenomics should facilitate greater understanding of how nutrition affects metabolic pathways and how this process goes awry in diet-related diseases.” Chadwick R. (2004) Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63:161-166.

Nutrigenetics

“Nutrigenetics is the study of individual differences at the genetic level influencing response to diet. These individual differences may be at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms rather than at the gene level…It is envisaged that nutrigenetics may lead to individualized dietary advice.”Chadwick R. (2004) Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63:161-166.

Nutrigenomics vs. Nutrigenetics


Nutrigenomics vs nutrigenetics1

Nutrigenomics Location

“Nutrigenomics attempts to study the genome-wide influences of nutrition…[and] aims to identify the genes that influence the risk of diet-related diseases on a genome-wide scale, and to understand the mechanisms that underlie these genetic predispositions.” Muller M & Kersten S. (2003) Nature Reviews Genetics 4:315-322.

Nutrigenetics

“Nutrigenetics examines the effect of genetic variation on the interaction between diet and disease or on nutrient requirements. Genetics has a pivotal role in determining an individual’s risk of developing a certain disease.” Muller M & Kersten S. (2003) Nature Reviews Genetics 4:315-322.

Nutrigenomics vs. Nutrigenetics


Nutrigenomics vs nutrigenetics2

Nutrigenomics Location

“Nutrigenomics describes the use of functional genomic tools to probe a biological system following a nutritional stimulus that will permit an increased understanding of how nutritional molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostatic control.” Mutch D, et al. (2005) FASEB Journal 19:1602-1616.

“Nutrigenomics focuses on the effect of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome.” Ordovas J & Mooser M. (2004) Current Opinion in Lipidology 15:101-108.

Nutrigenetics

“Nutrigenetics embodies the science of identifying and characterizing gene variants associated with differential responses to nutrients, and relating this variation to disease states.” Mutch D, et al. (2005) FASEB Journal 19:1602-1616.

“Nutrigenetics examines the effect of genetic variation on the interaction between diet and exercise. This includes…gene variants associated with, or responsible for, differential responses to nutrients.” Ordovas J & Mooser M. (2004) Current Opinion in Lipidology 15:101-108.

Nutrigenomics vs. Nutrigenetics


Nutrigenomics nutrigenetics two sides of a coin
Nutrigenomics & Nutrigenetics: Two Sides of a Coin Location

Mutch D, et al. (2005) FASEB Journal 19:1602-1616.


Nutritional genomics

The study of how different foods can interact with particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease and some cancers

Goal: Use of personalized diets to prevent or delay the onset of disease and optimize and maintain human health

Nutritional Genomics

http://nutrigenomics.ucdavis.edu/pressarticles.htm


Nutritional genomics1
Nutritional Genomics particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

van Ommen B. (2004) Nutrition 20:4-8.


Why the interest
Why the interest? particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

  • Improve health of populations

    • United States

    • Globally

  • Improve athletic performance

  • Weight loss

  • Potential economic impact

    • Functional food and dietary supplements is currently a $40 billion industry

    • The focus on nutrigenomics could mean an $80 billion dollar industry in 7-10 years


What is the evidence
What is the evidence? particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

  • Single Gene Disorders

    • PKU

    • Lactose intolerance

  • Complex conditions

    • Genes involved in susceptibility to complex diseases have been identified

    • Nutritional environment modifies the expression of genes

    • Metabolism of nutrients may vary by genotype, ultimately affecting health


What is the public health implication
What is the public health implication? particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

  • Can we use this information along with our increasing knowledge of the genetics of obesity for public health applications?

    • Obesity epidemic


Direct to consumer marketing
Direct to Consumer Marketing particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

  • Health Clubs

  • Vending Machines

  • Internet

  • Retail stores


On the internet
On the internet particular genes to increase the risk of diseases


Weight loss
Weight Loss particular genes to increase the risk of diseases

DNA Diet Builds Customized Weight-Loss Plan

One-size-fits-all diets could be a thing of the past.

NBC station KNSD in San Diego reported that a handful of bio-tech companies are promising a high-tech recipe for losing weight and eating better. The newest weight-loss plan is a customized diet based on your DNA. The DNA diet is a personalized meal plan that claims to be based on your unique genetic blueprint.

Katzin claims that based on your DNA profile she can “determine whether someone should increase the amount of folic acid, B-6 or B-12, for example. So, we would choose foods that are rich in those supplements.”

… “interprets the data and makes a customized meal plan. Her suggestions range from “ taking more vitamins to eating more meat.”


Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my

Health: You Are What You Eat particular genes to increase the risk of diseasesOct. 31, 2005 issue - Bruce Morrill is something of a health nut. So when his nutritionist suggested he take a $695 DNA test so she could individualize his diet plan, Morrill, a 42-year-old UPS driver from Reno, Nev., agreed.

Diet Design, One Pair of “Genes” at a Time


Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my

Currently in the United States, no regulations are in place for evaluating the accuracy and reliability of genetic testing. Most genetic tests developed by laboratories are categorized as services, which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate. This lack of government oversight is particularly troublesome in light of the fact that a handful of companies have started marketing test kits directly to the public. Some of these companies make dubious claims about how the kits not only test for disease but also serve as tools for customizing medicine, vitamins, and foods to each individual's genetic makeup. (doegenomes.org)

Genetic testing to identify alleged risk factors that have no proven corrective measures is simply a waste of money. As noted by Helen Wallace, Ph.D., Deputy Director of GeneWatch UK: "For most people, tailoring your diet to your genetic make-up is about as scientific as tailoring your diet to your star sign."


Sciona
Sciona for evaluating the accuracy and reliability of genetic testing. Most genetic tests developed by laboratories are categorized as services, which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate. This lack of government oversight is particularly troublesome in light of the fact that a handful of companies have started marketing test kits directly to the public. Some of these companies make dubious claims about how the kits not only test for disease but also serve as tools for customizing medicine, vitamins, and foods to each individual's genetic makeup. (doegenomes.org)

  • International company previously based in the UK

    • Personalized health and nutrition recommendations

    • Products were available through retail stores

  • GeneWatch UK called on retail stores to stop offering these tests

  • Currently based in Boulder, Colorado

    • Launching a campaign in 4 test markets

    • Partnerships with retail stores and local health care system


In store sales
In store sales for evaluating the accuracy and reliability of genetic testing. Most genetic tests developed by laboratories are categorized as services, which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate. This lack of government oversight is particularly troublesome in light of the fact that a handful of companies have started marketing test kits directly to the public. Some of these companies make dubious claims about how the kits not only test for disease but also serve as tools for customizing medicine, vitamins, and foods to each individual's genetic makeup. (doegenomes.org)


Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my

  • Lund Foods CEO: “…plan is to create a link between the evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Today Food Editor: “The idea, which is a good one, is to help shoppers understand what they can do in their daily food choices to either maintain their good health or help correct certain genetic defects that the test may have identified.”


Heart health
Heart evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.” Health

  • “Analyzes thirteen of your genes that may play an important role in determining how your body manages overall heart health”

  • “…assesses nine key diet and lifestyle action areas”


Bone health
Bone Health evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • “Analyzes four of your genes that may play an important role in determining how your body manages overall bone health

  • “..assesses seven key diet and lifestyle action areas”


Insulin resistance
Insulin Resistance evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • “Analyzes five of your genes that may play an important role in determining how your body manages overall insulin resistance”

  • “..assesses five key diet and lifestyle action areas”


Genetic assessment for antioxidant and detoxification
Genetic Assessment for Antioxidant and Detoxification evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • “Analyzes six of your genes that may play an important role in determining how your body manages overall antioxidant/ detoxification health”

  • “..assesses four key diet and lifestyle action areas”


Inflammation health
Inflammation Health evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • “Analyzes six of your genes that may play an important role in determining how your body manages inflammation”

  • “..assesses four key diet and lifestyle action areas”


Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my

Consumer Demand? evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Sciona claims to have sold 10,000 kits in Europe, Asia and the US

  • Current use is likely limited to those who can afford to pay

  • HealthSyles Survey indicates that only 14% of US population are aware of these tests, and only 0.6% have used a test

  • - age and income are associated with awareness

  • (Goddard et al., GIM 2007;9:510-7)


Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my

Why the Concern? evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

Currently in the United States, no regulations are in place for evaluating the accuracy and reliability of genetic testing. Most genetic tests developed by laboratories are categorized as services, which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate. This lack of government oversight is particularly troublesome in light of the fact that a handful of companies have started marketing test kits directly to the public. Some of these companies make dubious claims about how the kits not only test for disease but also serve as tools for customizing medicine, vitamins, and foods to each individual's genetic makeup. (doegenomes.org)

Genetic information is unlike other health information, in that it also provides information about your family members

Genetic testing to identify alleged risk factors that have no proven corrective measures is simply a waste of money. As noted by Helen Wallace, Ph.D., Deputy Director of GeneWatch UK: "For most people, tailoring your diet to your genetic make-up is about as scientific as tailoring your diet to your star sign."


Buyer beware
“Buyer Beware” evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

A recent report by the Government Accountability Office

highlighted a few of the concerns with four examples of DTC

nutrigenomic tests. The GAO report raised concerns that

the tests may mislead consumers by making unsound and ambiguous

predictions about health risks. In addition, the test

results frequently include recommendations for the consumer

to purchase dietary supplements that may be significantly

overpriced compared with similar products available through

a supermarket or pharmacy and that may, in fact, be harmful

for some individuals.


Potential benefits
Potential Benefits evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Increased focus on a healthy diet and lifestyle

  • Motivate positive behavior change

  • Increased awareness of risk of certain conditions

  • Improved health and quality of life

  • Focus on prevention

  • Decreased morbidity and premature mortality

  • Reduced health care costs

  • Identify subgroups who might be particularly responsive or resistant to environmental (dietary) intervention

  • Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in disease susceptibility


Potential harms
Potential Harms evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Attention is drawn away from other modifiable risk factors

  • Decreased use of other services

  • False sense of security

  • Focus on specific nutrients/foods

  • Ineffective or harmful

  • Misleading claims

  • Dilute or contradict public health messages


Potential harms cont
Potential Harms, cont. evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Increased costs associated with personalized diets and designer foods

  • Targeting vulnerable populations

  • Concerns surrounding confidentiality, insurance

  • Biobanking of samples, informed consent

  • Unintended consequences


From promise to practice
From Promise to Practice evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Consistent evidence

  • Evidence for clinical utility – added value

  • Understand how information is used

  • Culturally specific translation

  • Thoughtful integration based on evidence

  • Holistic approach

  • Address ELSI issues prior to integration

  • Access to services and “treatment”


Summary
Summary evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Potential is exciting

  • Range of opinions regarding readiness of current applications

  • Many parallels to pharmacogenomics

    • Dr. Arno Motulsky: “ the total promise of PGX is often overstated and is unlikely to lead to a revolution in therapeutics”

  • May provide benefits to some individuals, but probably not as broadly as currently predicted


Conclusions
Conclusions evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

  • Obesity is influenced by both genes AND environment

  • Obesity is associated with poverty, SES and education

  • Diet is important

    • High-fat energy-dense foods are often the cheapest options for the consumer

    • Health foods cost more

  • Nutrigenomic testing is not ready for prime time


Obesity nutrition nutrigenonmics oh my

UW Center for Genomics evaluations performed by Sciona and his stores’ food experts, which have long provided consumers with diet and nutritional advice and information.”

and Public Health

http://depts.washington.edu/cgph

Funded as part of the ASPH/CDC/ATSDR cooperative agreement

Office of Genomics and Disease Prevention

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention