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The Industrial Revolution

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  1. The Industrial Revolution

  2. What Makes the Industrial Revolution Different? • Other civilizations massively embraced technological solutions to social and economic problems in the past? • Roman engineering—bridges, sewers • China – iron industry of Song Dynasty—silk manufacture, porcelain, textiles, paper • Technology and business/capitalism

  3. New Technology - Bottlenecks • John Kay—Flying Shuttle(1733) • James Hargreaves—Spinning Jenny (1764) • Samuel Cromptom— “The Mule” (1779) • Edmund Cartwright—Power Loom (1775) • [James Watt and John Wilkinson – Steam Engine (1775)] • Eli Whitney – Cotton Gin (1793)

  4. New Technology

  5. New Bottleneck is Factory problems • Factory location because of Factory size. • Fuel problems • England was running out of wood • Coal accumulated water in the mines so that pumps had to be used

  6. Engines • Thomas Savery—1698 • Thomas Newcomen—1705 • John Wilkinson -- boring mill in 1774 • James Watt -- steam engine in 1775 • George Stephenson came up with the “The Iron Horse” in 1829

  7. The Industrial Revolution • Has its main effects from 1780-1850: • Time of transformation of work • From hand to machine • From rural areas to cities • Created social classes • Workers, the Proletariat • The Middle Class, Factory Owners, the Bourgeoisie • Changed family life

  8. Changes which occurred because of the Industrial Revolution • Migration to industrialized nations • Changed way of buying and selling • Creation of new leisure activities • Transferred balance of power toward industrialized countries

  9. Why ENGLAND? • Science most advanced • Protestantism • Agricultural Revolution most advanced in England

  10. England and the Consequences of the Industrial Revolution • Technology used to transform means of war • 1851—England produced 2/3 of the world’s coal. • England produced ½ the world’s iron and cotton. • Problems in factories • Standard of living?

  11. The Zollverein