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Configuring Cisco CallManager Express (CME)

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Configuring Cisco CallManager Express (CME)
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Configuring Cisco CallManager Express (CME)

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  1. Configuring Cisco CallManager Express (CME) Cisco Networking Academy Program

  2. Overview of Cisco CME

  3. What is Cisco CallManager Express? Cisco CME • Call processing for small to medium sized deployments • VoIP integrated solution • Up to 120 IP phones • IOS based solution Trunks PSTN WAN

  4. What is Cisco CallManager Express? (Cont.) • Select IOS based platform • Multiservice access routers 2600XM 1700 3700

  5. PSTN How Does Cisco CallManager Express Work? Connection(s) to PSTN • Analog • Digital

  6. PSTN WAN How Does Cisco CallManager Express/Cisco Unity Express Work? (Cont.) PSTN H.323 between Cisco CME systems H.323 H.323 WAN H.323 SIP PSTN Gateway and IP to IP Gateway functionality PSTN

  7. Differences between Traditional Telephony and VoIP

  8. Basic Components of a Telephony Network

  9. Central Office Switches

  10. What Is a PBX?

  11. Basic Call Setup

  12. Digitizing Analog Signals • Sample the analog signal regularly • Quantize the sample • Encode the value into a binary expression • Compress the samples to reduce bandwidth (multiplexing), optional step

  13. Nyquist Theorem

  14. Quantization

  15. Example: ITU • ITU standards: • G.711 rate: 64 kbps = (2 x 4 kHz) x 8 bits/sample • G.726 rate: 32 kbps = (2 x 4 kHz) x 4 bits/sample • G.726 rate: 24 kbps = (2 x 4 kHz) x 3 bits/sample • G.726 rate: 16 kbps = (2 x 4 kHz) x 2 bits/sample

  16. Example: Source Compression • High-quality voice at low bit rates, processor intensive • G.728: LDCELP—16 kbps • G.729: CS-ACELP—8 kbps • G.729A variant—8 kbps, less processor intensive, allows more voice channels encoded per DSP • Annex-B variant –VAD and CNG

  17. Real-Time Transport Protocol • Provides end-to-end network functions and delivery services for delay-sensitive, real-time data, such as voice and video • Works with queuing to prioritize voice traffic over other traffic • Services include: • Payload type identification • Sequence numbering • Timestamping • Delivery monitoring

  18. RTP Header Compression • RTP header compression saves bandwidth by compressing packet headers across WAN links

  19. When to Use RTP Header Compression • Narrowband links • Slow links (less than 2 Mbps) • Need to conserve bandwidth on a WAN interface

  20. Challenges and Solutions in VoIP

  21. Reliability and Availability • Traditional telephony networks claim 99.999% uptime • Data networks must consider reliability and availability requirements when incorporating voice • Methods to improve reliability and availability include: • Redundant hardware • Redundant links • UPS • Proactive network management

  22. Bandwidth Implications of Codec

  23. Data Link Overhead • Ethernet: 18 bytes overhead • MLP: 6 bytes overhead • Frame Relay: 6 bytes overhead

  24. Cisco CME Features and Functionality

  25. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) FAX Analog Phones ATA H.323 ATA Skinny Analog Skinny

  26. Supported Protocols and Integration Options Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) • Cisco proprietary • Call Control protocol • Lightweight protocol • Low memory requirements • Low complexity • Low CPU requirements

  27. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) H.323 Protocol • Supports Voice, Video, and Data • Industry Standard • Complex protocol • Higher complexity than Skinny protocol • CAC functionality is part of the protocol • Authentication is part of the protocol

  28. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) CallManager Cluster H.323 Connections Vmail PSTN CME H.323 H.323 H.323 WAN H.323 CME Recommended

  29. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) Cisco CME can register to a H.323 gatekeeper thereby ensuring the WAN is not oversubscribed H.323 WAN Register Register 1000 2095551000 2000 3095552000 Gatekeeper Register Extension number and/or E.164 number Register Extension number and/or E.164 number

  30. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) • Emerging standard • Vendor specific in most cases • Higher complexity than Skinny protocol • Authentication is part of the protocol • Based on other well known protocols SIP Protocol

  31. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) CallManager Cluster SIP Connections Vmail PSTN CME H.323 SIP SIP WAN SIP CME H.323 is recommended today

  32. Cisco CME Network Parameters

  33. Auxiliary VLANs • Prevent unnecessary IP address renumbering • Simplifies Quality of Service (QoS) configurations • Separates Voice and Data traffic • Requires two Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) one for Data and one for Voice • Requires only one drop down Ethernet for the CallManager Express IP phone and the PC plugged into the phone

  34. Auxiliary VLANs (Cont.)IP Addressing Deployment Options IP Phone + PC on same switch ports IP Phone + PC on same switch ports Recommended 171.68.249.100 171.68.249.100 10.1.1.1 171.68.249.101 Public IP addresses IP Phone uses private Network IP Phone + PC on separate switch ports IP Phone + PC on separate switch ports 171.68.249.101 171.68.249.100 10.1.1.1 171.68.249.100 Public IP addresses IP Phone uses private network

  35. Configuring Auxiliary VLANs • An access port able to handle 2 VLANs • Native VLAN (PVID) and Auxiliary VLAN (VVID) • Hardware set to dot1q trunk Tagged 802.1q (Voice VLAN) Untagged 802.3 (Native VLAN)

  36. Configuring Auxiliary VLANs - Switching Review • Address learning • Forward/filter decision • Loop avoidance

  37. Configuring Auxiliary VLANs (Cont.) Example 3550 switch or EtherSwitch Network Module • 802.1q trunking is enabled on the port • The access VLAN is used for the PC plugged into the IP phone • The voice VLAN is used for voice and signaling that originates and terminates on the IP phone • Spanning tree portfast enables the port to initialize quickly • Console(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1 • Console(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q • Console(config-if)#switchport trunk native vlan 1 • Console)config-if)#switchport access vlan 12 • Console(config-if)#switchport mode trunk • Console(config-if)#switchport voice vlan 112 • Console(config-if)#spanning-tree portfast

  38. Configuring Auxiliary VLANs (Cont.) Switch# show interface fa0/17 switchport Name: Fa0/17 Switchport: Enabled Administrative mode: trunk Operational Mode: trunk Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Operational Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Negotiation of Trunking: Disabled Access Mode VLAN: 0 ((Inactive)) Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 12 (VLAN0012) Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL Trunking VLANs Active: 1-3,5,10,12 Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001 Priority for untagged frames: 0 Override vlan tag priority: FALSE Voice VLAN: 112 Appliance trust: none

  39. Configuring Auxiliary VLANs - Router Configuration 802.1q trunk Trunk on a router interface fastethernet 1/0.1 encapsulation dot1q 10 ip address 10.10.0.1 255.255.255.0 interface fastethernet 1/0.2 encapsulation dot1q 20 ip address 10.20.0.1 255.255.255.0 ... VLAN 10 VLAN 20

  40. DHCP Service Setup Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol • Assigns an IP addresses and subnet masks for one or more subnets • Optionally can assign a default gateway • Optionally can assign DNS servers • Optionally can assign other commonly used servers • The DHCP scope can be customized to assign a TFTP server to IP phones • Best practice is to configure a DHCP scope for the IP phones

  41. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.) DHCP Service Options • Single DHCP IP Address Pool • Separate DHCP IP Address Pool for Each Cisco IP Phone • DHCP Relay Server

  42. Range of available IP addresses The subnet mask A default gateway The address of the TFTP server DNS server(s) DHCP Service Setup (Cont.): Phone Bootup On the Cisco CME router a DHCP Scope can be configured. The scope should define the following: The IP phone powers on The phone performs a Power on Self Test (POST) The phone boots up Through CDP the IP phone learns what the auxiliary VLAN is The phone initializes the IP stack Continued next slide…

  43. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.): Phone Bootup (Cont.) IP phone send DHCP Discover broadcast requesting an IP address DHCP server selects a free IP address from the pool and sends along with the other scope parameters as a DHCP Offer The IP phone initializes applies the IP configuration to the IP stack The IP phone requests it configuration file from the TFTP server

  44. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.) CMERouter(config)# ip dhcp excluded-address start-IP end-IP • Sets a range of addresses to be excluded from the configured scopes CMERouter(config)# ip dhcp pool pool-name • Creates and enters a the DHCP scope mode CMERouter(dhcp-config)# network subnet subnet-mask • Defines the range of addresses that will be used to assign to DHCP clients

  45. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.) CMERouter(dhcp-config)# option option-number ip IP-address • Defines a custom option and its value CMERouter(dhcp-config)# default-router IP-address • Sets the default gateway that will handed out to the DCHP clients CMERouter(dhcp-config)# dns-server primary-IP [secondary IP] • Sets the DNS server(s) that will assigned to the DHCP clients

  46. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.) • Option 150 sets the TFTP server on the IP phone • The TFTP server contains the configuration files and firmware for the IP phone Configuring DHCP on an IOS router CMERouter(config)#ip dhcp exluded-address 10.90.0.1 10.90.0.10 CMERouter(config)#ip dhcp pool mypool CMERouter(dhcp-config)#network 10.90.0.0 255.255.255.0 CMERouter(dhcp-config)#option 150 ip 10.90.0.1 CMERouter(dhcp-config)#default-router 10.90.0.1 CMERouter(dhcp-config)#dns-server 10.100.0.1 10.100.0.2 CMERouter(dhcp-config)#exit

  47. IP Phone Registration

  48. Files • Firmware • SEPAAAABBBBCCCC.cnf.xml • XmlDefault.cnf.xml • SCCP-dictionary.xml • Phonemodel-dictionary.xml • Phonemodel-tones.xml • Files critical to the IP phone SEP XML TFTP Server

  49. 7905 Firmware 7940 Firmware 7960 Firmware Files (Cont.): Firmware CMERouter1#show flash -#- --length-- -----date/time------ path 1 399514 Mar 1 2002 12:56:28 P00305000301.sbn 2 22649180 Mar 1 2002 12:38:00 c3725-ipvoice-mz.123-7.T.bin 3 321939 Mar 1 2002 12:55:58 CP7902010200SCCP031023A.sbin 4 317171 Mar 1 2002 12:56:06 CP7905010200SCCP031023A.sbin 5 317968 Mar 1 2002 12:56:10 CP7912010200SCCP031023A.sbin 6 700651 Mar 1 2002 12:56:18 CiscoIOSTSP.zip 7 369950 Mar 1 2002 12:56:22 P00303020214.bin 8 333822 Mar 1 2002 12:56:30 P00403020214.bin 9 47904 Mar 1 2002 12:56:54 S00103020002.bin 10 301298 Mar 1 2002 12:56:56 ata18x-v2-16-ms-030327b.zup 11 496521 Mar 1 2002 12:57:22 music-on-hold.au 12 1908762 Mar 1 2002 12:56:54 P00503010100.bin 13 21 Mar 1 2002 12:56:18 OS7920.txt 14 839984 Mar 1 2002 12:57:18 cmterm_7920.3.3-01-06.bin … … 33 307067 Mar 1 2002 12:56:02 CP79050101SCCP030530B31.zup 34 710144 Mar 1 2002 12:57:06 cme-gui-3.1.1.tar • Firmware is installed in flash RAM with the Cisco CME software or individually as needed • Served up by the TFTP server on the Cisco CME router • The command tftp-server flash:firmware-file-name

  50. Download and RegistrationPower over Ethernet Step 1 - Switch sends a Fast Link Pulse (FLP) FLP Step 2 - The phone returns the FLP to the switch due to a completed circuit FLP Step 3 - Power is applied Step 4 - Link is detected on switchport Step 5 - The IP phone boots up Step 6 - The amount of power really needed is passed through CDP from the IP phone to the switch CDP Power needed