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Malware, Spyware, and Viruses. By: Anthony Bosnak. Overview. Malware How Antivirus Programs Work Future Threats. Malware. General misconception among people Malware = “malicious software” Malware is any kind of unwanted software that is installed without your consent on your computer.

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  • Malware
  • How Antivirus Programs Work
  • Future Threats
  • General misconception among people
  • Malware = “malicious software”
  • Malware is any kind of unwanted software that is installed without your consent on your computer.
  • Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, bombs, spyware, adware are subgroups of malware.
  • A virus tries to infect a carrier, which in turn relies on the carrier to spread the virus around.
  • A computer virus is a program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another.
viruses cont
Viruses cont.
  • Direct infection: virus can infect files every time a user opens that specific infected program, document or file.
  • Fast Infection: is when a virus infects any file that is accessed by the program that is infected.
  • Slow infection: is when the virus infects any new or modified program, file or document.
    • Great way to trick a antivirus program!
viruses cont1
Viruses cont.
  • Sparse Infection: is the process of randomly infecting files, etc. on the computer.
  • RAM-resident infection: is when the infection buries itself in your computer’s random access memory.
  • Video:Hippi Virus + Cascade Virus
  • ANSI Bombs: MS-DOS days
    • More of a joke malware, than anything else.
    • Change code in ANSI.SYS file, which calls a driver that displays colors and graphics.
    • One feature is keyboard macros. So the bomb would remap common keys the user would press.
    • Most of the ANSI bombs would be disguised as a batch file to be run in the MS-DOS menu.
example code
Example Code
  • ESC[99; “format c:”;13p
  • ESC[66; “format c:”13p
  • This code remaps the letter C and c. Every time the user presses C or c it tries to reformat the hard drive. The only problem with this is the computer asks, “Do you really want to reformat drive C: (Y/N)?” Most users then press N or n for No. So the hacker remaps the Y and N keys.
  • ESC[110; 121;13p
  • ESC[78;89;13p
  • When the user now presses the N or n key it will actually make the user press Y or y; and vice versa.
bombs cont
Bombs cont.
  • Logic Bombs: is programming code that is designed to execute or explode when a certain condition is reached.
    • Most the time it goes off when a certain time is reached or a program fails to execute. But it these bombs wait for a triggered event to happen.
    • Most common use of this is in the financial/business world.
    • Most IT employees call this the disgruntled employee syndrome.
  • Trojan horse: is a program or software designed to look like a useful or legitimate file.
  • Once the program is installed and opened it steals information or deletes data.
  • Trojan horses compared to other types of malware is that it usually runs only once and then is done functioning.
trojans cont
Trojans cont.
  • Some create back-door effects
  • Another distribution of Trojans is by infecting a server that hosts websites.
  • Downfall of Trojans: very reliant on the user.
  • Video Example: NeturalZlob Trojan
  • Worms and viruses get interchanged commonly in the media.
  • In reality a worm is more dangerous than a virus.
  • User Propagation vs. Self Propagation
  • Worm is designed to replicate itself and disperse throughout the user’s network.
  • Email Worms and Internet Worms are the two most common worm.
email worm
Email Worm
  • Email worm goes into a user’s contact/address book and chooses every user in that contact list.
  • It then copies itself and puts itself into an attachment; then the user will open the attachment and the process will start over again!
  • Video Example: I LOVE YOU WORM
internet worms
Internet Worms
  • A internet worm is designed to be conspicuous to the user.
  • The worms scans the computer for open internet ports that the worm can download itself into the computer.
  • Once inside the computer the worms scans the internet to infect more computers.
adware and spyware
Adware and Spyware
  • Adware is a type of malware designed to display advertisements in the user’s software.
  • They can be designed to be harmless or harmful; the adware gathers information on what the user searches the World Wide Web for.
  • With this gathered information it displays ads corresponding to information collected.
adware and spyware cont
Adware and Spyware cont.
  • Spyware is like adware it spies on the user to see what information it can collect off the user’s computer to display pop ads on the user’s computer.
  • Spyware unlike adware likes to use memory from programs running in the background of the computer to keep close watch on the user.
  • This most often clogs up the computer causing the program or computer to slow down and become un-fuctional.
antivirus programs
Antivirus Programs
  • Antivirus programs are designed to detect malware trying to enter the user’s system.
  • There are several ways a antivirus program can track malware entering the computer.
  • Software can use:
    • Signature based detection
    • Heuristics
    • Cloud Antivirus
    • Network Firewall
signature based detection
Signature-Based Detection
  • Most common way a antivirus finds malware on a computer
  • Database of virus signatures
  • Constant Updates
  • Not 100% foolproof
  • Detection of malware is done by monitoring files and how certain programs try to reform the files on the system.
  • When a modification takes place the antivirus alerts the user and tries to elevate the problem.
cloud antivirus
Cloud Antivirus
  • New form of antivirus program
  • The virus scanning is done from a remote location(not on the computer).
  • Why this is so popular is because it relieves the physical computer resources.
    • Constant functionality (Nonstop scanning)
  • Security Issues
network firewall
Network Firewall
  • Operating systems way of protecting the user from unknown programs.
  • Not technically a antivirus program
  • Monitors the TCP/IP ports programs tries to access.
future threats
Future Threats
  • Almost everything is hooked up to the internet in some sort of form.
  • Recent events have widened the eyes of many security experts.
  • The ability to gain access to high security organizations, infrastructures or mainframes has frightened many people.
  • Could one click of the mouse start World War III?
  • Attack on Estonia
    • Attacked parliament, ministries, banks, newspapers, and other websites were attacked by Denial of Service Attacks.
  • Major infrastructures attacked
    • Stuxnet Virus
    • Japan’s Defense Contractors
    • Zeus Malware
  • Obama almost started a Cyberware in Libya.
how can we protect ourselves
How can we protect ourselves
  • Use an antivirus program and keep it up to date!
    • Yes they only protect from know malicious code out there, but it’s still something!
operating system s security
Operating System’s Security
  • Keep your Operating System up to date!
    • Windows is one of the most hacked OS on the market.
    • The updates are mostly focused on security patches
become an informed user
Become An Informed User!
  • Become aware of what you are doing on the internet!
    • Don’t click on pop up ads!
    • Keep up to date on current issues happening on the web!
  • Wang, Wallace. (2006). StealThis Computer Book 4.0: What They Won’t Tell You About the Internet. San Francisco, CA: William Pollock.
  • Panda Cloud Antivirus. (n.d.) Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Wikipedia:
  • Fowler, Daniel. (2008). Importance of Cybersecurity Increases as Attacks Get More Dangerous. In Richard Joseph Stein (Ed.), Internet Safety (pp. 5-7). New York, NY: H.W. Wilson Company.
  • Viega, John. (2009). The Myths of Security: What the computer Security Industry Doesn’t Want you to Know. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc.