Secondhand Smoking at Home in the US: Its Effects on Children By Peter F. Edemekong (MPH Student) Walden University PUBH-6165- Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. Patrick Tschida Summer Quarter 2011
Objectives • To further educate parents about the necessity of providing children a safer environment free from exposure to secondhand smoke. • To enlighten adults who smoke about the health risk and effects of smoking on exposed children. • To readdress the need and importance of continued education about overall effects of smoking • To make our home a safe place and conducive for habitation.
What is Secondhand Smoke in its Broad Context: • Secondhand Smoke by definition is: • An involuntary exposure and consumption of the by-products of cigarette. It is the form of passive smoking that involves a combination of smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and that exhaled by a smoker otherwise referred to as sidestream and mainstream smoking. • Aim of this presentation: • To help bring to the awareness to adults and parents who are smokers about the side effects of Secondhand smoking on children at home. National cancer Institute , 2011
Forms of Secondhand Smoke • Secondhand Smoke comes in many forms such as; • exposure to smoke from cigarette, the most common form to date in the US. • Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Occurs through: • Pipes • Cigars • Other related tobacco products. National Institute of Cancer , 2011
How are Children Exposed to Secondhand Smoke at Home? • In the US, Children are exposed to cigarette smoke primarily from • The burning cigarette. • The exposure to room air that contains nicotine and other chemicals emitted from tobacco. By-Products of Secondhand Smoke includes: • Cotinine: a by-product of nicotine • Carbon dioxide National Institute of Cancer, 2011
Secondhand Smoke and the Numbers • The CDC (2011) shares that an estimated 88 million nonsmokers in the United States were exposed to secondhand smoke in 2007–2008 alone. • Of those numbers: • 53.6% of young children (aged 3–11 years) were exposed to secondhand smoke in 2007–2008 alone. • 18.2% of children (aged 3–11 years) lived with someone who smoked inside their home in 2007–2008. • Only 5.4% of adult nonsmokers in the United States lived with someone who smoked inside their home. CDC, 2011
Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Children and Adults • In 2007- 2008: • 55.9% of non-Hispanic blacks were exposed to secondhand smoke. • 40.1% of non-Hispanic whites were exposed to secondhand smoke. • 28.5% of Mexican Americans were exposed to secondhand smoke. CDC, 2011
Does Low Income play a part in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke? • Is there a link to Low Income? • It was found that secondhand smoke exposure tends to be high for persons with low incomes. • 60.5% of persons living below the poverty level in the United States were exposed to secondhand smoke in 2007–2008 alone. CDC, 2011
Effects and Damages Done by Exposure to Secondhand Smoke • Tobacco consumption contributes to environmental pollution in many forms that result in adverse health conditions in children including; • Premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans dated back to 1964. • Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke includes • Increased risk of future lung cancer • Increased risk of coronary heart disease • Increased risk of chronic respiratory disease Gary Giovino, 2007
Effects of Secondhand Smoke in Children • Ear infections • Frequent and severe asthma attacks • Respiratory symptoms (e.g. coughing, sneezing, shortness of breath) • Respiratory infections (bronchitis, pneumonia) • A greater risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) CDC, 2011
Effects of Secondhand Smoke in Children 18months and Younger • Children who are aged 18 months or younger and exposed to secondhand smoke have • an estimated 150,000–300,000 new cases of bronchitis and pneumonia annually • approximately 7,500–15,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States. CDC, 2011
Another Perspective of Symptoms & Health Effects: Risk of Respiratory Disease • Children Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Contributes to: • increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome • Ear infections • Colds • Pneumonia • Bronchitis • Severe asthma National Institute of Cancer, 2011
Secondhand Smoke & Low Birth Weight Low Birth Weight: A dilemma? • Secondhand smoke exposure also increases the risk of a birth weight below 2,500g by 22 percent. • Could This Be Prevented? • Yes. Secondhand smoke is a known preventable cause of low birth weight • What if it is not Prevented? • Could results in infant mortality • Increased risk of health complications into adulthood. ANR, 2009
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) How Did We Arrive Here? • Maternal smoking is the strongest risk factor that leads to SIDS. • Infants who die from SIDS tend to have higher concentrations of nicotine in their lungs. • Exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk for SIDS ANR, 2009 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010
Secondhand Smoke and Asthma in Children • In 2009, about 9.6% children reported having asthma when compared to 7.7% adults • This diagnosis was higher in boys with an 11.3%. • African American children reported the highest incidence and prevalence of asthma at a 50% increase asthma rates was among African-American children, who had a 50% increase from 2001 to 2009 Bill Hendrick, 2011
Rate and cost of Asthma in US children • The highest rate of asthma in 2009 was among African-American children with a reported 17% diagnosed with asthma disease. • Annual costs of asthma treatment in the U.S. was $3,300 per person between 2002 and 2007. • According to CDC, about two in five uninsured and one in nine insured people with asthma could not afford their prescription medication. Bill Hendrick, 2011
Other Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children’s Lung • Exposure to Secondhand smoke contributes to: • Slow growth of children’s lungs • Causes idiopathic • Cough • Wheeze • Breathlessness National Institute of Cancer, 2011
Secondhand Smoke & Ear Infection Beware: The Surgeon General (2007) shares that children exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk for ear infections and are more likely to need an operation to insert ear tubes for drainage. Surgeon General, 2007
Related symptoms of Ear Infection • Related symptoms of Ear infections and Operation include: • Fever • Headache • Aching pain in the ears • Fluid discharge from the ears • Decreased hearing problems in the future • Sleeping disturbance and difficulty staying asleep Surgeon General, 2007
Increased risk of Cardiovascular System Disease • Increased risk of Coronary Heart Disease include: • An estimated 46,000 premature deaths from heart disease per year in the US among children and non-smokers • Increased risk of Immediate adverse Effect on blood Vessels • This increases the risk of developing heart attack in the future • Increased risk of developing heart attack is increased by 25-30% CDC, 2011
How Can We Control Secondhand Smoke at out Homes? • Separating smokers from nonsmokers • Cleaning the air • Seek alternatives to smoking if you cannot quit • Nicotine patch • Electric cigarette • Nicotine replacement therapy CDC, 2011
The Message! In order to control, prevent and protect our children from being exposed to the effects of secondhand smoke at home, parents, adults and young adults who smoke will have to find a way to quit, eliminate and make conducive, the indoor environment so to help ensure that children are not exposed to or inhale any form of secondhand smoke.
I hope everyone learned something unique about the Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children at Homes in the US.
THE END Thank you for your time! Questions & Answers!!
References Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights (2009). Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children. Accessed on July 24, 2011 from http://no-smoke.org/document.php?id=212. American SIDS Institute (2009). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Accessed on August 06, 2011 from http://www.sids.org/. CDC (2011) Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Facts. Smoking and Tobacco Use. Accessed on July 24, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/index.htm Giovino, G. A. (2007). The Tobacco Epidemic in the United States. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Accessed on June 25, 2011 from http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(07)00567-3/abstract.
Hendrick, B. (2011). Asthma Rates on the Rise in US. WebMD Asthma Health Center. Accessed on July 23, 2011 from http://www.webmd.com/asthma/news/20110503/asthma-rates-on-the-rise-in-the-us. National Cancer Institute (2011). Secondhand Smoke and Cancer. Accessed on July 21, 2011 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/ETS. The Surgeon General (2007). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed on July 24, 2011 from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/factsheets/factsheet2.html U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Health Effects of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke. Smoke-free Homes and cars Program. Accessed on July 24, 2011 from http://www.epa.gov/smokefre/healtheffects.html.