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Design strategies. Material source for this session: Business research methods – Donald R.Cooper, Pamela S. Schindler Our own Naresh Malhotra !. Descriptors of research design. Exploratory research. Data types. Primary data:

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Design strategies

Design strategies

Material source for this session:

Business research methods – Donald R.Cooper, Pamela S. Schindler

Our own Naresh Malhotra !

Data types
Data types

  • Primary data:

    Data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand

  • Secondary data:

    Data that have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand

Secondary data can help you to
Secondary data can help you to

  • Identify the problem

  • Better define the problem

  • Develop an approach to the problem

  • Formulate an appropriate research design

  • Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses

  • Interpret primary data more insightfully

Criteria for evaluating secondary data
Criteria for evaluating secondary data

  • Specification / Methodology

  • Error / Accuracy

  • Currency

  • Objective

  • Dependability


  • Internal data:

    Internal data are available within the organization for which the research is being conducted

  • External data:

    Data that originate external to the organization

Secondary data sources
Secondary data sources

  • Government websites, ministries

  • Indiastat


  • NSE, BSE

  • Company websites, annual reports

  • Prowess, CMIE

  • Ebsco, Science Direct, Emerald

Exploratory research design

Exploratory researchdesign

Qualitative research

Qualitative research
Qualitative research

  • Qualitative research is an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples that provides insights and understanding of the problem

  • On the other hand, quantitative research methodology seeks to quantify the data, and typically, applies some form of statistical analysis

Qualitative research procedures


(Non disguised)



Focus groups

Depth interviews

Projective techniques









Focus group interviews
Focus group interviews

  • Origins from sociology

  • Came into wide usage in the late 1970s

  • Mainly conducted in the consumer research arena

  • An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured natural manner

Focus group characteristics
Focus group characteristics

  • Group size 8 to 12

  • Group composition Homogenous, respondents prescreened

  • Physical setting Relaxed, informal atmosphere

  • Time duration 1 to 3 hour

  • Recording Use of audiocassettes and videotapes

  • Moderator Observational, interpersonal,

    with good communication skills

Procedure for planning and conducting focus groups
Procedure for planning and conducting focus groups

  • Determine the objectives of the marketing research project and define the problem

  • Specify the objectives of qualitative research

  • State the objectives/questions to be answered by focus groups

  • Write a screening questionnaire

  • Develop a moderator’s outline

  • Conduct the focus group interviews

  • Review tapes and analyze the data

  • Summarize the findings and plan follow-up research or action

Depth interviews
Depth interviews

  • An unstructured, direct, personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes and feelings on a topic

  • Techniques

    - Laddering

    - Hidden issue questioning

    - Symbolic analysis

Projective techniques
Projective techniques

  • An unstructured and indirect form of questioning that encourages the respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern

  • Techniques

    - Association techniques

    - Completion

    - Construction

    - Expressive

Association techniques
Association techniques

  • In association techniques, an individual is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind.

  • Department store (location, parking, shopping, quality, price)

  • Laptops

  • Business schools

Word association
Word association

  • Here, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time. After each word, they are asked to give the first word that comes to mind

  • The underlying assumption of this technique is that association allows respondent to reveal their inner feelings about the topic of interest

  • Responses are analyzed by calculating

    - the frequency with which any word is given as a response

    - the amount of time that elapses before a response is given

    - the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test within a reasonable period of time

Completion techniques
Completion techniques

  • A projective technique that requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus situation

  • Sentence completion

    A person who shops at Hyderabad Central is _____________________

    When I think of a camera, -------------------

  • Story completion

Construction techniques
Construction techniques

  • A projective technique in which the respondent is required to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue or description

  • Closely related to completion technique

  • A less initial structure is provided to the respondent

  • Techniques

    - Picture response technique

    - Cartoon tests

Expressive techniques
Expressive techniques

  • In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings or attitudes of other people to the situation

  • Two main techniques – role playing and third person techniques

  • Role playing – respondents asked to assume the behavior of someone

  • Third person technique – asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person to the situation

Class activity
Class activity

  • Groups

  • Decide on a screening questionnaire to conduct a focus group study

  • The task is to elicit preferences of consuming food of an Italian restaurant that is to be opened shortly

  • Do submit the considerations in your questions at the end of 15 minutes.