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FRENCH REVOLUTION. Napoleon & Latin American Independence. 7 Year’s War. Had to do with a woman becoming empress of Austria- Prussia contested it. Austria (with Great Britain) v. Prussia (with France). War fought in Europe, Asia & North America.

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french revolution

FRENCH REVOLUTION

Napoleon & Latin American Independence

7 year s war
7 Year’s War
  • Had to do with a woman becoming empress of Austria- Prussia contested it.
  • Austria (with Great Britain) v. Prussia (with France).
  • War fought in Europe, Asia & North America.
  • Called the French & Indian War in North America.
  • Result: Stalemate with a few changes. British got India and Canada and lands east of the Mississippi.
american revolution
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Inspired by Enlightenment ideas: Especially John Locke.
  • Colonists unhappy about British taxes. Revolted.
  • July 4, 1776- Issued Declaration of Independence which said people had the right “to alter or abolish” unjust governments. This idea is from John Locke although written by Thomas Jefferson.
  • George Washington was commander in chief of military.
  • British defeated in 1781 and colonies became the United States of America. At first a Confederacy, but later created the Constitution and a Bill of Rights.
    • Inspired by Enlightenment and Greek/Roman ideas about Democracy
    • Got idea about separation of powers in order to protect people’s liberties from Montesquieu.
    • Bill of Rights- Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, assembly, bear arms; protections against unreasonable searches and arrests; guarantees trial by jury, due process, etc.
french revolution1
FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • French Society divided into Three Estates: First- Clergy; Second- Nobles/Aristocrats; Third- Peasants/Merchants, everyone else.
  • Third was largest group but owned smallest amount of land and were only group to pay taxes. This made them unhappy.
  • France was undergoing a financial crisis and King Louis XVI was forced to call the Estates General (like Congress). Third Estate then declared it was the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.
  • July 14, 1789- Storming of the Bastille.
  • Great Fear.
  • National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen- inspired by US Declaration of Independence and Enlightenment ideas. Also created a new Constitution and a LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
  • Went to war with Austria.
  • Paris Commune wanted more radical change. Sans culottes.
  • NATIONAL CONVENTION created. Violence erupted.
  • FIRST REPUBLIC created and was dominated by the Jacobins. Louis XVI put to death with guillotine.
  • COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY, led by Robespierre, created to find and execute “threats to the republic”.
  • 40,000 people killed during the REIGN OF TERROR.
  • 1794- French beat foreign foes. Terror ended when Robespierre put to death.
  • New Government: THE DIRECTORY. Still tumultuous until Napoleon took over in 1799 (end of revolution)
the age of napoleon
THE AGE OF NAPOLEON
  • From Corsica. Went to military school. Rose quickly in military and became a brigadier general at age 24. Won several major battles which made him famous in France.
  • Invaded Egypt, a British colony.
  • Coup d’etat in 1799- overthrew Directory and created a consulate with him holding absolute power. 1804: Named himself Emperor.
    • Made peace with Catholic Church
    • Created a Napoleonic Code of Laws: Equality before law, religious freedom, etc. But less rights for women and children.
    • Built schools and emphasized education.
    • Created a strong administration.
    • Created a French Empire: France, Italy, Spain, Holland, Switzerland, Poland, Germany all conquered.
    • Could not conquer Britain. Tried to use Continental System (weaken British trade) but didn’t work.
    • Nationalism rose and conquered people were united in their hatred of French invaders.
    • Invasion of Russia was a disaster! Winter crippled the army (40,000 of 600,000 survived invasion).
  • European states attacked weakened France and Napoleon was sent in Exile to Elba and Louis XVIII made king of France.
  • Napoleon returned for 100 days but was defeated in Waterloo and sent to St. Helena where he died in 1821.
european poltics after revolution napoleon
EUROPEAN POLTICS AFTER REVOLUTION/NAPOLEON
  • Congress of Vienna: 1814- Goal is to create a balance of power where one country could not dominate Europe. Metternich of Austria had a Conservatism philosophy with strong political authority favored. New principle of intervention where powers had right to armies to countries with revolutions to restore order.
  • New forces in European countries: Liberalism (people wanted rights and liberties, religious freedom, Constitution, etc.); Nationalism (people identify with their country and have a strong sense of loyalty; want their country unified and free of other countries).
  • French Revolution (again): Monarchy overthrown and a SECOND REPUBLIC was created with a President- Louis Napoleon.
  • Germany tried and failed to unite.
  • Minority groups in the Austrian Empire tried to revolt but they were crushed.
  • Crimean War: Russia v. Ottoman Empire b/c Russia wanted warm-water port. Other European powers got involved. Destroyed the Congress of Vienna.
  • Italy united (1870) under the leadership of King Victor Emmanual II, Camillodi Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi.
  • Germany united under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, mostly due to his Iron Will and his policy of Realpolitik.
latin american independence
LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
  • Most of Latin America was a colony of Spain; however, Portugal, England and France also had colonies.
  • Social Classes: Peninsulares- Spanish and Portuguese officials. Creoles- decendants of Europeans living there permanently. Mestizo- mixture of European and native culture.
  • Latin America inspired by U.S. and French Revolutions and Enlightenment thinking.
  • Haiti: First slave revolt. Let by Francois Toussaint-Louverture, a former slave. First Latin American nation to get independence in 1804.
  • Mexico: 9/16/1810- Father Miguel Hidalgo led first revolt against Spain. Led by Iturbide, got Independence in 1821.
  • South America: Jose de San Martin of Argentina and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela are the “liberators” of South America. 1810-1824.
  • Most of Latin America soon became controlled by Caudillos, strong leaders backed by military and wealthy.
  • Great Britain and the United States began dominating Latin American economies.