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By Mary Johnson and Aretha Simpkins. Video Surveillance in America. Video Surveillance. The Eye That Sees Everything You Do. How did it all begin?.

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by mary johnson and aretha simpkins
By

Mary Johnson and Aretha Simpkins

Video Surveillance in America

video surveillance
Video Surveillance

The Eye That Sees Everything You Do

how did it all begin
How did it all begin?
  • the use of tin identity tags and badges in the late 18th century was indeed the first step toward establishing identity cards, which did mark their holders as slaves. 
  • The next step in what might be called passive surveillance was photography. Identifying miscreants on paper was difficult; keeping rogue's galleries of them in photographic form made it much easier to spot them again,
  • an early form of biometrics, based on body measurement, and later fingerprinting, helped police identify criminals
  • DNA testing is now used to do the same.
  • Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the "authorities" kept striving to develop foolproof systems of identification, all of which were designed to identify repeat offenders, or people whose identities had been recorded because of their race or political ideas. 
how did it all begin continued
How did it all begin? (continued)
  • But surveillance reached a new level of pervasiveness with the advent of digital technology. The first example of electronic surveillance occurred when IBM worked for the German National Socialist government organizing and analyzing its census, a project which was "as integral to Hitler's Final Solution as was Zyclon-B." The numbers tattooed on prisoners' forearms - "death camp barcodes" - were linked to their computerized records.

Things that make you go hmmm…

Data existing for specific purposes today may tomorrow be used for other reasons. 

slide5
Pros
  • Pros of installing security cameras
  • Provides officials with evidence that would not be available otherwise -- With constant video monitoring, school officials have access to detailed evidence of any suspicious or criminal activity.
  • Acts as a crime deterrent -- It is a proven fact that people are less likely to commit a crime if they know that they are being watched. If students are aware of the fact that their school is being monitored, vandalism and other acts of violence may be greatly reduced. In addition, in the event a crime is caught in action, emergency officials will be better able to contain the situation.
  • Instills a sense of security for both parents and students -- It is a comfort to many to know that their school is being monitored on a daily basis. Care must be taken though to ensure that video footage is actually being monitored on a regular and timely basis. A sense of security can be dangerous if the security measures implemented are not being properly utilized.
slide6
Cons
  • Pros of installing security cameras
  • Provides officials with evidence that would not be available otherwise -- With constant video monitoring, school officials have access to detailed evidence of any suspicious or criminal activity.
  • Acts as a crime deterrent -- It is a proven fact that people are less likely to commit a crime if they know that they are being watched. If students are aware of the fact that their school is being monitored, vandalism and other acts of violence may be greatly reduced. In addition, in the event a crime is caught in action, emergency officials will be better able to contain the situation.
  • Instills a sense of security for both parents and students -- It is a comfort to many to know that their school is being monitored on a daily basis. Care must be taken though to ensure that video footage is actually being monitored on a regular and timely basis. A sense of security can be dangerous if the security measures implemented are not being properly utilized.
is privacy a thing of the past
Is privacy a thing of the past?
  • Closed-circuit TV cameras, smart cards, GPS chips in cell phones, and every one of your electronic transaction recorded and archived for data mining by the authorities and corporations - this is the lot of American citizens in the 21st century. It is hard to move unnoticed in the United States, especially after September 11, an event which is exploited by "the worst elements of the political class, who seek to steer fear and anger toward the destruc
  • it is possible that many people simply don't realize the extent of the invasion. Television shows such as Big Brother (a Dutch invention) attempt to impose narrative on everyday actions monitored by constant surveillance, and people "treat [this surveillance] as another natural element, like heat or cold, with which we must live and against which we test our wits." tion of traditional American liberties." 
  • From Social Security numbers to credit cards, from bar codes to GSM chips; as times marches on, the tiny details all add up to a disturbing picture: in developed countries, it is very difficult to live without leaving traces of your actions on a daily level.
  • From your ATM, which knows where you were when you withdrew cash, to your cell phone, which records your location as you speak, the "soft cage" of surveillance surrounds you constantly. Cameras film you day and night, your passage through toll booths is recorded if you use a system designed to save you time, and your employer can monitor your work through your computer.  
home surveillance stop crime before it begins
Home Surveillance…stop crime before it begins…

Click here to let Bob Vila show you how to get started!

Police Use Homeowners Surveillance Camera To :

See intruders live, close-up and peersonal

Have an extra set of eyes 24/7…

Be prepared…a burglary occurs every thirteen seconds…

Respond to the downward spiral of our economy…crime is rising…

The Internet - is one of the prime ways to monitor the actions of citizens. It makes the transfer of data inexpensive and easy, and allows the authorities to combine databases and provide trans-national access to police forces all across the country.  

the commencement
The Commencement

Home video surveillance used to be an expensive and time-consuming project -- but not anymore. A homeowner who is away on vacation or at work while contractors are in her home can now access the webcam's remote feed via an IP address to see if anything is amiss. Parents can watch their child's nanny and property owners can make sure their rental properties are safe and secure.

Home video security systems can rely on wireless IP technologies, wireless sensors, and webcam surveillance to meet the security needs for every homeowner's budget. It is estimated that over half of home surveillance systems purchased today are using wireless technologies. Says Jeff Hoover, past president of the Custom Electronics Design and Installation Association, "As video systems get better and cheaper, more and more people start to use them."

how digital surveillance systems work
How digital surveillance systems work
  • A digital security system consists of hardware and software components that collect and transmit the surveillance camera information via wireless technologies, fiber optic cable or over any IP-based network. Both power and data can be carried on the same cable by using PoE (power over Ethernet). Some cameras in a digital system may also have their own IP address for full access to the Internet. These surveillance images are then transferred to a PC or laptop in a centralized control room to be viewed by an observer using a compact, flat-screen monitor that offers multi-screen displays. An IP-based digital system is unlike the traditional closed CCTV system, whose images must be monitored using multiple monitors, sites and personnel.
  • The digital system can store surveillance data onto DVRs (digital video recorders), some of which can store data up to 10 weeks -- far more than CCTV analog systems. After the DVR has backed up the images, they can be exported to discs using the CD-RW drive, and then they can be sent to remote PCs, laptops, or handheld devices within moments via the network. Digital recording is done 24/7, without the need for cumbersome CCTV videotapes that have limited storage capacities.
  • When a company or government chooses to invest in digital surveillance systems, they need to invest the time in finding out how large an area needs to be watched, as well as the area's situational parameters. A digital system requires a large capital investment up front, but it is guaranteed to produce a positive ROI if the cameras are properly placed and if the images are consistently monitored.
  • One of the reasons for the increased cost of the digital systems over CCTV lies in the hi-tech cameras, which greatly surpass the analog CCTV cameras. The cameras have features ranging from fixed models to direction-controlled or dome models with automatic pan, tilt and zoom functions that can create sharp images in the 1600 x 1200 pixel resolution range. With the extra zooming and panning capabilities, one security camera can do the work of five, which is more efficient in the long run.
  • And on the highest end, there are cameras with infrared capabilities to pick up motion and changes in light regardless of poor lighting conditions. Some these high-end cameras even have 3-D imaging to better identify suspects. Companies investing in the digital system should also consider purchasing camera accessories such as weather-proofing and added material that's resistant to tampering and hazardous substances.
crime surveillance
Crime Surveillance
  • The reasons for surveillance include: the ability to deter crime, helpfulness in prosecuting individuals caught in the act of committing a crime, and it is cost saving.
  • Does surveillance deter crime?
  • Critics say that it conflicts with the U.S. Constitution's Fourth Amendment prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures
  • There are surveillance cameras on the street, at ATM’s, in banks, and stores.
  • Click the link below to view surveillance of a crime taking place in a grocery store.
  • http://www.myfox8.com/video/?clipId=3455708&topVideoCatNo=undefined&c=&autoStart=true&activePane=info&LaunchPageAdTag=homepage&clipFormat=flv
slide12

Biometric technologies are being used increasingly today to provide secure identification for a number of applications and uses. When it comes to security, the use of biometric technology to positively identify people is especially key.

  • Biometrics that scan facial characteristics, finger prints, irises of eyes and more, are highly secure because they match and log unique identifying traits for individuals.
  • As security breaches and other public threats plague today’s world, facial biometrics are also being used to identify crime suspects and authorized users in various locations.
traffic surveillance
Traffic Surveillance

http://www.bookrags.com/summaries/Surveillance

The use of video surveillance cameras as a deterrent to traffic violations has recently come to our own city of New Haven. The Department of Traffic and Parking at 200 Orange Street has monitors that observe the traffic flow at several intersections in New Haven twenty-four hours a day. Video cameras such as the one at the intersection of State and Water Streets not only capture the traffic flow, but also any activity on the sidewalks. Unlike in some cities, these cameras are movable. The equipment is capable of producing still frames of cars that run through red lights. The still pictures will clearly show the cars registration plates. A driver who causes an accident by disobeying the signal not only runs the risk of a summons, but still prints will be sent to the driver's insurance company. This gets to the very heart of the privacy issue. Not only is the individual photographed without permission, but also his photograph is going to be distributed to a third party who will use it for business purposes. The argument may be made that it is illegal to run a red light and the person doing so should suffer the consequences. However, there are no guarantees that the cameras may not be used for other purposes. A case can be made that since local government is already helping insurance companies, the next step would be to sell the video to other enterprises. One can imagine getting a call from a representative of a body shop who wants to sell you a paint job because it was noted on the video that your car was faded. Far fetched? At this time it is possible watch the morning news on commercial television and see live reports of traffic flow on local highways. This is a case of private enterprise using publicly supported surveillance equipment for commercial gain: namely ratings. In this case, this use of public equipment is accepted because it provides a helpful service.

nanny cams
Nanny Cams

Should they be used or are they an invasion of privacy?

  • The Nanny Cam is being purchased and placed into the private homes of many families all over the world. This is decreasing the anxieties of MISTRUST in the parents minds, as all they have to do is check and view their children, from wherever they are. The Nanny Cam has viewed and recorded the course of events that have taken place since their departure. Since all is recorded and easily viewed it lets them know just what is being done and said during the course of their departure. One question arises in all this, a question of would you want this done to you? Many nanny's are not being told by their employer that their is a monitor recording all that they say and do. If parents are feeling FEAR and CONCERNS about their childcare provider, or nanny they should discuss this with the provider and let them know. Perhaps, the nanny or childcare provider wouldn't mind this course of action
  • It is recommended, though, that you let the nanny know that you are installing cameras.
  • Rememebr that they do not have sound.
  • First, you can opt for an exposed camera that can be easily found in an electronics store.
  • Option two would be a hidden camera designed to fit in a stuffed animal or something similar.
workplace surveillance
Workplace Surveillance
  • Employers use surveillance of employees
  • Surveillance of employees include:

keyboard keystroke monitoring

 reviewing and storing employee e-mails and instant messages

monitoring time spent on the phone, numbers called and actual

taping of conversations

video surveillance

drug testing

satellite technology to monitor use of company cars, cell phones

and pagers

  • Why do employers monitor employees?
  • Is it legal?
  • Employee at work caught on tape
  • http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xnma0_printer-doesnt-work_fun
please click the link below to take a brief survey
Please click the link below to takea brief survey…
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