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  1. Start Kingdom Protista Animal-like Fungus-like Plant-like Quiz Place your keyboard aside. Use your mouse to navigate.

  2. back home Microorganisms Like their name implies, microorganisms such as Protista and bacteria are microscopic and can only be seen with the help of a microscope. Despite their small size, they have a large impact on nature.

  3. back home Microorganisms Like their name implies, microorganisms such as Protista and bacteria are microscopic and can only be seen with the help of a microscope. Despite their small size, they have a large impact on nature. Since they are unicellular, their single cell must be able to perform all the necessary processes required to survive. This includes the ability to create or obtain energy, reproduce, and escape from predators.

  4. back home Microorganisms Like their name implies, microorganisms such as Protista and bacteria are microscopic and can only be seen with the help of a microscope. Despite their small size, they have a large impact on nature. Since they are unicellular, their single cell must be able to perform all the necessary processes required to survive. This includes the ability to create or obtain energy, reproduce, and escape from predators. Bacteria are the simplest forms of life on Earth. We know this because they have the simplest cell structure. Bacteria are prokaryotes, which means they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, rough ER, and vacuoles. According to fossil evidence, bacteria are thought to be about 3.5billion years old.

  5. back home Kingdom Protista Scientists are not quite sure how some bacteria evolved into the first protista, but fossil evidence dates protista to around 1.5 billion years ago. Members of Kingdom Protista are all eukaryotic (they have a true nucleus) and need some kind of a water-based environment (freshwater, marine water, snow, damp soil) in which to live. All are aerobic (require oxygen) and have mitochondria to do cellular respiration.

  6. back home Kingdom Protista Scientists are not quite sure how some bacteria evolved into the first protista, but fossil evidence dates protista to around 1.5 billion years ago. Members of Kingdom Protista are all eukaryotic (they have a true nucleus) and need some kind of a water-based environment (freshwater, marine water, snow, damp soil) in which to live. All are aerobic (require oxygen) and have mitochondria to do cellular respiration. Currently, there are approximately 60,000 known species. Protista are incredibly diverse and actually have few traits in common with other Protista. For example…

  7. back home Protista Differences Most members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Multicellular Kelp Single celled Euglena Colonial Volvox

  8. back home Protista Differences Most members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Some are autotrophic and have chloroplasts in which to perform photosynthesis, but many are heterotrophic and feed on others. Photosynthetic algae Heterotrophic Paramecium

  9. back home Protista Differences Most members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Some are autotrophic and have chloroplasts in which to perform photosynthesis, but many are heterotrophic and feed on others. Protists are grouped into three major, categories based on how they obtain nutrition. They are divided into: protozoans (animal-like), algae (plant-like), and slime molds (fungus-like). This animal-like Amoeba is swallowing its prey.

  10. back home Protista Differences Most members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Some are autotrophic and have chloroplasts in which to perform photosynthesis, but many are heterotrophic and feed on others. Protists are grouped into three major, categories based on how they obtain nutrition. They are divided into: protozoans (animal-like), algae (plant-like), and slime molds (fungus-like). Plant-like protista do photosynthesis.

  11. back home Protista Differences Most members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Some are autotrophic and have chloroplasts in which to perform photosynthesis, but many are heterotrophic and feed on others. Protists are grouped into three major, categories based on how they obtain nutrition. They are divided into: protozoans (animal-like), algae (plant-like), and slime molds (fungus-like). Here is a fungus-like protista called “dog vomit slime mold” because it resembles…you get the idea I hope.

  12. back home Quick Stop #1 Which is generally true about Protista? Protista are usually ____________________. Protista are always ____________________. No. Some protista are multicellular, but most are unicellular. correct unicellular multicellular correct prokaryotes eukaryotes No. Bacteria are the only prokaryotes.

  13. back home Protozoans Animal-like protists are called protozoans ("first animals") because it is thought that they are the ancestors to animals. They share many common traits with animals. All of the animal-like protists are heterotrophs; they are unable to make their own food. But unlike animals, they are unicellular. Since they can’t make their own food they must be able to move through their environment and catch their food. Animals are multicellular Protozoans are unicellular

  14. back home Protozoans Animal-like protists are called protozoans ("first animals") because it is thought that they are the ancestors to animals. They share many common traits with animals. All of the animal-like protists are heterotrophs; they are unable to make their own food. But unlike animals, they are unicellular. Since they can’t make their own food they must be able to move through their environment and catch their food. Protozoans are divided into groups based upon their means of mobility and manners for catching their food. They are divided into: protists with pseudopods, protists with cilia, and protists with flagella.

  15. back home Pseudopods A pseudopod is a "false foot" that slowly moves the protist. These protists move towards their food or prey by extending their cytoplasm.

  16. back home Pseudopods A pseudopod is a "false foot" that slowly moves the protist. These protists move towards their food or prey by extending their cytoplasm. The pseudopod extends from the cytoplasm, attaches to the ground, and pulls the rest of the body toward the food. Video should start on its own. If not, click the picture.

  17. back home Pseudopods Pseudopod extending around prey A pseudopod is a "false foot" that slowly moves the protist. These protists move towards their food or prey by extending their cytoplasm. The pseudopod extends from the cytoplasm, attaches to the ground, and pulls the rest of the body toward the food. The pseudopods are not only for the means of locomotion; they also capture food by wrapping the "false foot" around their prey and bringing it into their bodies. One example of an animal-like protist with pseudopods is the Amoeba.

  18. back home Pseudopods A pseudopod is a "false foot" that slowly moves the protist. These protists move towards their food or prey by extending their cytoplasm. The pseudopod extends from the cytoplasm, attaches to the ground, and pulls the rest of the body toward the food. The pseudopods are not only for the means of locomotion; they also capture food by wrapping the "false foot" around their prey and bringing it into their bodies. One example of an animal-like protist with pseudopods is the Amoeba. Pseudopod has the prey trapped

  19. back home Amoebas Amoebas are single celled animal-like protists that live in moist soil, freshwater, and salt water. There are different types of Amoeba but they all use pseudopods as means of locomotion and capturing food. Most of the Amoebas are free-living and eat things like other protozoans and bacteria, but a few Amoebas are parasitic.

  20. back home Amoebas Amoebas are single celled animal-like protists that live in moist soil, freshwater, and salt water. There are different types of Amoeba but they all use pseudopods as means of locomotion and capturing food. Most of the Amoebas are free-living and eat things like other protozoans and bacteria, but a few Amoebas are parasitic. An example of a parasitic Amoeba is Entamoeba histolytica. This Amoeba is the cause of amoebic dysentery, which is a deadly infectious disease found mostly in tropical areas and in areas where sanitation is poor. This disease is a leading cause of death for infants and toddlers since their immune systems are not yet developed.

  21. back home Amoebas Amoebas are single celled animal-like protists that live in moist soil, freshwater, and salt water. There are different types of Amoeba but they all use pseudopods as means of locomotion and capturing food. Most of the Amoebas are free-living and eat things like other protozoans and bacteria, but a few Amoebas are parasitic. An example of a parasitic Amoeba is Entamoeba histolytica. This Amoeba is the cause of amoebic dysentery, which is a deadly infectious disease found mostly in tropical areas and in areas where sanitation is poor. This disease is a leading cause of death for infants and toddlers since their immune systems are not yet developed.

  22. back home Ciliates Cilia are tiny hair-like structures that surround some protists. The cilia beat back and forth. This movement enables the animal-like protist to move through its aquatic environment. The cilia also help the organism capture food. When the cilia beat, the prey (food) is moved into its body. Video should start on its own. If not, click the picture. Beating cilia create currents that draw food into this ciliates mouth

  23. back home Ciliates Cilia are tiny hair-like structures that surround some protists. The cilia beat back and forth. This movement enables the animal-like protist to move through its aquatic environment. The cilia also help the organism capture food. When the cilia beat, the prey (food) is moved into its body. The cilia can also help the protist move towards the food/prey by propelling the organism through their aquatic environment. Video should start on its own. If not, click the picture.

  24. back home Ciliates Cilia are tiny hair-like structures that surround some protists. The cilia beat back and forth. This movement enables the animal-like protist to move through its aquatic environment. The cilia also help the organism capture food. When the cilia beat, the prey (food) is moved into its body. The cilia can also help the protist move towards the food/prey by propelling the organism through their aquatic environment. One example of an animal-like protist with cilia is the Paramecium. The cilia help the Paramecium push the food and water into the body of the cell. The food then becomes enclosed in a vesicle filled with digestive enzymes.

  25. back home Flagellates Flagella are long whip-like structures that move back and forth allowing the animal-like protist to move. Protists with flagella beat the long whip-like structure to move through their aquatic environments. These organisms can be free-living although some are parasitic, living in moist tissues of plants and animals. flagella

  26. back home Flagellates Flagella are long whip-like structures that move back and forth allowing the animal-like protist to move. Protists with flagella beat the long whip-like structure to move through their aquatic environments. These organisms can be free-living although some are parasitic, living in moist tissues of plants and animals. One example of an animal-like protist with flagella is Giardia lamblia. Giardia lamblia uses flagella as its means of locomotion and food capturing. It is an internal parasite the causes diarrhea.

  27. back home Flagellates Flagella are long whip-like structures that move back and forth allowing the animal-like protist to move. Protists with flagella beat the long whip-like structure to move through their aquatic environments. These organisms can be free-living although some are parasitic, living in moist tissues of plants and animals. One example of an animal-like protist with flagella is Giardia lamblia. Giardia lamblia uses flagella as its means of locomotion and food capturing. It is an internal parasite the causes diarrhea. Giardia lamblia contaminates waters of aquatic lands and river banks. When animals and humans drink the water, the protist becomes parasitic to the host. It leaves the host through the feces. Many humans get this disease by drinking infected waters or eating infected meats.

  28. back home Malaria Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria.

  29. back home Malaria Plasmodium Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Plasmodium is a parasitic animal-like protist transported through mosquitoes. While in the mosquito the Plasmodium is in a dormant stage. When a mosquito bites a human, it is transported into the human where it becomes active. Red blood cell

  30. back home Malaria Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Plasmodium is a parasitic animal-like protist transported through mosquitoes. While in the mosquito the Plasmodium is in a dormant stage. When a mosquito bites a human, it is transported into the human where it becomes active. The Plasmodium reproduces asexually inside the liver and then enters red blood cells, where they are destroyed in massive amounts. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the Plasmodium are taken into the mosquito and the process begins all over again. Plasmodium injected into human when bitten by mosquito

  31. back home Malaria Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Plasmodium is a parasitic animal-like protist transported through mosquitoes. While in the mosquito the Plasmodium is in a dormant stage. When a mosquito bites a human, it is transported into the human where it becomes active. The Plasmodium reproduces asexually inside the liver and then enters red blood cells, where they are destroyed in massive amounts. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the Plasmodium are taken into the mosquito and the process begins all over again. Plasmodium grow and develop inside the liver

  32. back home Malaria Normal red blood cell Infected red blood cell Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Plasmodium is a parasitic animal-like protist transported through mosquitoes. While in the mosquito the Plasmodium is in a dormant stage. When a mosquito bites a human, it is transported into the human where it becomes active. The Plasmodium reproduces asexually inside the liver and then enters red blood cells, where they are destroyed in massive amounts. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the Plasmodium are taken into the mosquito and the process begins all over again. Plasmodium migrate into the blood stream and multiply inside red blood cells.

  33. back home Malaria Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Plasmodium is a parasitic animal-like protist transported through mosquitoes. While in the mosquito the Plasmodium is in a dormant stage. When a mosquito bites a human, it is transported into the human where it becomes active. The Plasmodium reproduces asexually inside the liver and then enters red blood cells, where they are destroyed in massive amounts. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the Plasmodium are taken into the mosquito and the process begins all over again. Infected red blood cells burst, releasing more Plasmodium into the blood

  34. back home Malaria Many protists are disease causing. When conditions are good for them they are active; when conditions are bad they become dormant. One example of this parasitic animal-like protist is Plasmodium, which causes malaria. Plasmodium is a parasitic animal-like protist transported through mosquitoes. While in the mosquito the Plasmodium is in a dormant stage. When a mosquito bites a human, it is transported into the human where it becomes active. The Plasmodium reproduces asexually inside the liver and then enters red blood cells, where they are destroyed in massive amounts. When a mosquito bites an infected person, the Plasmodium are taken into the mosquito and the process begins all over again. Mosquito bites infected person to restart the cycle

  35. back home Quick Stop #2 correct protozoans prokaryotes Animal-like protista are called __________________. Drinking water contaminated with _____________________ can lead to diarrhea and death. Amoeba do not have true legs. Instead they move by extending their __________________________. correct Giardia Paramecia cilia flagella pseudopods correct

  36. back home Fungus-Like Protista They are fungus-like in their nutrition in that they absorb nutrients from their environment.

  37. back home Fungus-Like Protista They are fungus-like in their nutrition in that they absorb nutrients from their environment. One group are called “slime molds.” Their “body” is unusual in that the nuclei undergo mitosis, but there is no cytokinesis, which means the cells never separate. Rather, the “body” is a giant mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei.

  38. back home Fungus-Like Protista They are fungus-like in their nutrition in that they absorb nutrients from their environment. One group are called “slime molds.” Their “body” is unusual in that the nuclei undergo mitosis, but there is no cytokinesis, which means the cells never separate. Rather, the “body” is a giant mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei. Slime molds are mobile: they move like a giant Amoeba with giant pseudopods. They live in decayed wood and move around in between the fibers, ingesting bacteria, etc. by phagocytosis. Slime molds are often brightly-colored (yellow or orange).

  39. back home Historical Water Mold Water molds attack foods such as potatoes, cabbage, and corn. An example of the devastation a water mold is capable of doing happened between the years of 1845 and 1860. During this time, the potato growing seasons were cold and damp. These conditions encouraged the spread of the water mold Phytophthora infestans.

  40. back home Historical Water Mold Water molds attack foods such as potatoes, cabbage, and corn. An example of the devastation a water mold is capable of doing happened between the years of 1845 and 1860. During this time, the potato growing seasons were cold and damp. These conditions encouraged the spread of the water mold Phytophthora infestans. This water mold infested the potato crops in Ireland and caused the potato plants to rot. One third of Ireland’s population died by either starvation or were killed by the infested potatoes. This time period is known as the Irish Potato Famine. Memorial tribute in Dublin

  41. back home Quick Stop #3 correct heterotrophs autotrophs Fungus-like protista are __________________. The Potato Famine was a deadly disease that took place in _____________________. Scotland Ireland correct

  42. back home Plant-like Protista Plant-like protists are autotrophic; they can make their own foods. They live in soil, on the bark of trees, in fresh water, and in salt water. Plant-like protists are very important to the earth because they produce an abundant amount of oxygen. They are the basis for the aquatic food chain.

  43. back home Plant-like Protista Plant-like protists are autotrophic; they can make their own foods. They live in soil, on the bark of trees, in fresh water, and in salt water. Plant-like protists are very important to the earth because they produce an abundant amount of oxygen. They are the basis for the aquatic food chain. These protists are similar to plants as they are photosynthetic. Some have stem-like structures called stipes and anchoring structures called holdfasts, while plants have actual stems and roots. Many of these protists release their eggs into the environment where the sperm will fertilize the egg. This green algae is thought to be an ancestor of modern plants

  44. back home Euglena Euglena are plant-like protists that are usually found in fresh water. During the day these protists are autotrophic; they can make their own foods. When night falls they become heterotrophic; they are unable to make their own foods, and thus they must be able to find it. As a result, Euglena have flagella to help them move during.

  45. back home Euglena Euglena are plant-like protists that are usually found in fresh water. During the day these protists are autotrophic; they can make their own foods. When night falls they become heterotrophic; they are unable to make their own foods, and thus they must be able to find it. As a result, Euglena have flagella to help them move during. Euglena are single celled organisms with an abundance of organelles. They have an "eye spot" which covers a light-sensitive receptor. When the “eye spot” senses light, Euglena will move towards the light into order to better perform photosynthesis.

  46. back home Notable Plant-like Protista Green algae are plant-like protists that are structurally closest to plants. Most are unicellular, some live in colonies, and few are multicellular. Green algae grows in marine waters, below the surface of the soil, and in rocks, tree bark, in other organisms, and in snow.

  47. back home Notable Plant-like Protista Green algae are plant-like protists that are structurally closest to plants. Most are unicellular, some live in colonies, and few are multicellular. Green algae grows in marine waters, below the surface of the soil, and in rocks, tree bark, in other organisms, and in snow. Diatoms are photosynthetic. They contain a shell that is made of silica, a glass-like material. Over millions of years the shells become crushed and form the sand found on the bottom of oceans and lakes.

  48. back home Notable Plant-like Protista Green algae are plant-like protists that are structurally closest to plants. Most are unicellular, some live in colonies, and few are multicellular. Green algae grows in marine waters, below the surface of the soil, and in rocks, tree bark, in other organisms, and in snow. Diatoms are photosynthetic. They contain a shell that is made of silica, a glass-like material. Over millions of years the shells become crushed and form the sand found on the bottom of oceans and lakes. One of the most complex of all protistans is giant kelp. They are multicellular and contain stipes (stem-like structures), blades (leaf-like structures), and holdfasts (anchoring structures). Kelp often live in giant colonies, creating a kelp bed. These giant kelp beds act like underwater "forests". Many fish, bacteria, and other protistans live their lives with in the giant kelp "forests."

  49. back home Protista and Evolution As you can see by this tutorial, Kingdom Protista and very diverse and greatly affect our understanding of biology. But aside from their diversity, they are connected to three other kingdoms of life.

  50. back home Protista and Evolution As you can see by this tutorial, Kingdom Protista and very diverse and greatly affect our understanding of biology. But aside from their diversity, they are connected to three other kingdoms of life. Some animal-like protista are thought to have evolved into the very first… Animals Plants Fungi Correct. C’mon! They’recalled animal-like for a reason. Try again. C’mon! They’recalled animal-like for a reason. Try again.