Preparing a talkand a paper CL Mak Department of Applied Physics
Objectives • Talk/presentation • How to prepare viewgraphs • The personal side of giving talks • Write a paper/manuscript • Eight steps to develop the first draft • Some rules for writing a paper
Talk/Paper • Tell the audience what your are going to tell them and why (Introduction) • Then tell them (Body) • Tell them what you told them (Conclusion)
Talk: Viewgraphs • Carefully prepare those graphs and/or diagrams you want the audience to take away from your talk. • All symbols/graphs/equations must be define on a viewgraph. • Deciding the level of detail: narrow the scope of your talk to fit the allotted time. • Do not say anything essential to your talk that is not on one of your viewgraphs.
Talk: Viewgraphs (2) • Write out the talk. Practice it at least once in front of colleagues. Revise the talk if it is too long. • PRINT, don’t use handwriting. • BLACK is the easiest color to read. • MORE material on a viewgraph is better than less. • Make equations effective.
Talk: Personal Side • In oral presentation, you are also presenting yourself. • Avoid mechanical error • Body language: nervous mannerisms will distract your audience. In moments of stress, take a deep breath, stand firmly and ….. • Personal Appearance: dress neatly • Visual Aids: make printing large enough, find light switch/focus control/pointer before your talk begins, don’t stand in front of the viewgraph.
Talk: Personal Side(2) • Avoid mechanical error • Interactions with you audience: Maintain eye contact with friendly faces about the room. • Speak Clearly. • Stick to time limit. • Responding to questions • Let your questioner finish the question. • Be prepared to rephrase the question. • Keep answer short: try to start with a “yes” or “no” if at all possible.
Talk: Personal Side(3) • Responding to questions • Confess your ignorance: if you don’t know, admit it graceiously, and thank the questioner for bringing the point to your attention. Offer to talk later about it. • Deflect hostile questions. Never argue with a questioner. • Gauging your audience • Devote the first half to a careful and clear introduction to the topic, save the highly technical material for the last.
Talk: Personal Side(4) • Deciding level of detail • Practice both your delivery-what you say and how you say it- and your timing . Practice the talk until you can do it comfortably within the time limit.
Write a paper/manuscript • Begin with Introductionand continue in order through each section (ensure flow) • Begin with the easiest sections (Method/Experimental, Result) followed by the Discussion, Conclusion, Introduction, References,Title and Abstract.
The First Draft • Consolidate all the information: data, drafts of tables and figure, and reference. • Target a journal: check the focus of the targeted journal • Start writing: put something down on paper. Do this when your energy is high. • main points must be captured • sentences incomplete • grammar incorrect
The First Draft 4. Write quickly to keep the flow going. Leave gaps/space if necessary. Write in your own voice. Write without editing. 5. Keep to the plan of your outline. Focus what you want to say. Treat each section as a mini essay, stick to the goal (what you want to accomplish and say) of that particular section. 6. Put the first draft aside for few day to allow you to be another person.
The First Draft 7. Revise it several times. Not as an author, but as a critic. • Does each sentence make sense? • Can you keep track of the subject at hand in loner sentence? • Do longer paragraphs follow a single idea, if not, break into smaller paragraphs. • Clarity and brevity: most sentences should be about 20 words, paragraphs of about 8 sentences. Avoid using unnecessary words. 8.Be consistent. More than one authors
Checklists • Contain enough significant and original material • Subject matter suitable for Applied Physics/Materials Science/…… • Scientific development sound, and conclusions supported by evidence • Adequate reference • Well organized/well written: title appropriate, free of errors • Clear abstracts: include important points