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Chapter 15 Program Development and Programming Languages. What is a computer program ?. Set of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks. What Is a Computer Program?. programming language

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what is a computer program
What is a computer program?

Set of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks

What Is a Computer Program?

programming language

Set of words, symbols, and codes that enables a programmer to communicate instructions to a computer

Next

p.15.2

the program development life cycle
What is the program development life cycle (PDLC)?

Steps followed to build computer programs

The Program Development Life Cycle

Next

p.15.22 Fig. 15-1

the program development life cycle1
How is program development related to system development?

Program development is ongoing process within system development

The Program Development Life Cycle

Next

p.15.3 Fig. 15-2

step 1 analyze problem
What is involved in analyzing the problem?Step 1 – Analyze Problem

Review program specifications package

Meet with systems analyst and users

Identify each program’s input, output, and processing components

Next

p.15.4

step 1 analyze problem1
What is an IPO chart?

Identifies program’s inputs, outputs, and processing steps

Used to establish design specifications

Step 1 – Analyze Problem

Next

p.15.4 Fig. 15-3

step 2 design programs
What is involved in designing programs?Step 2 – Design Programs

top-down design

Focuses on whatprogram should do

structured design

Focuses on how to build program based on requirements

Next

p.15.5

step 2 design programs1
What is a hierarchy chart?

Used to show program modules graphically

Also called structure chart or top-down chart

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15. 6Fig. 15-4

step 2 design programs2
What is structured design?

Technique that builds all program logic from combination of three basic control structures

Step 2 – Design Programs

sequence control structure

selection control structure

repetition control structure

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click Structured Design

p.15.6

step 2 design programs3
What is a sequence control structure?

Shows one or more actions following each other in order

Actions could be

Inputs

Processes

Outputs

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.7 Fig. 15-5

step 2 design programs4
What is a selection control structure?

Tells program which action to take, based on a certain condition

Step 2 – Design Programs

if-then-else control structure

case control structure

Next

p.15.7

step 2 design programs7
What is a repetition control structure?

Used when program performs one or more actions repeatedly as long as certain condition is met

Step 2 – Design Programs

do-while control structure

do-until control structure

Next

p.15.8

step 2 design programs8
What is a do-while control structure?

Repeats one or more times as long as condition is true

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.8 Fig. 15-8

step 2 design programs9
What is a do-until control structure?

Tests condition at end of loop

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.8 Fig. 15-9

step 2 design programs10
No dead code

No infinite loops

One entry point

One exit point

What is a proper program?

Step 2 – Design Programs

dead code

Any code, or program instruction, that program never executes

infinite loop

Set of instructions that repeats continuously

entry point

Location where program, module, or control structure begins

exit point

Location where it ends

Next

p.15.8

step 2 design programs11
How are entry and exit points shown?

Each control structure should have one entry point and one exit point

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.9 Fig. 15-10

step 2 design programs12
What is a program flowchart?

Graphically shows logic in a solution algorithm

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.10 Fig. 15-12

step 2 design programs13
What is a Nassi-Schneiderman (N-S) chart?

Graphically shows logic in a solution algorithm

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.11 Fig. 15-14

step 2 design programs14
What is pseudocode?

Uses condensed form of English to convey program logic

Step 2 – Design Programs

Next

p.15.12 Fig. 15-15

step 2 design programs15
What is a quality review?

Review of program design

Desk check

Structured walkthrough

Step 2 – Design Programs

logic error

Design flaw that causes inaccurate results

Next

p.1512

step 3 code programs
What is involved in coding programs?

Two steps

Translating solution algorithm into a programming language

Entering programming language code into the computer

Step 3 – Code Programs

Next

p.15.13 Fig. 15-16

step 4 test programs
What is involved in testing programs?

Goal is to ensure program runs correctly and is error free

Three types of errors

Syntax

Logic

Run time

Step 4 – Test Programs

Next

p.15.13

step 4 test programs1
What is debugging?

Process of locating and correcting syntax and logic errors in program

Step 4 – Test Programs

Next

p.15.14 Fig. 15-17

step 5 formalize solution
What is involved in formalizing a solution?

Programmer performs two activities

Reviews program code

Reviews documentation

Step 5 – Formalize Solution

Next

p.15.15

step 6 maintain programs
What is involved in maintaining programs?

Two activities

Identify errors

Identify enhancements

Involves modifying existing programs to improve their functionality

Step 6 – Maintain Programs

Next

p.15.15

categories of programming languages
What are the categories of programming languages?Categories of Programming Languages

assembly languages

machine languages

third-generation languages

fourth-generation languages

fifth-generation languages

Next

Click to viewanimation

Click to view video

p.15.16

categories of programming languages1
What are low- and high-level programming languages?Categories of Programming Languages

low-level language

Programming language that is machine-dependent

high-level language

Language that is machine-independent

Machine-dependent language

Runs only on oneparticular computer

Machine-independent language

Can run on many different types of computers

Third-generation, fourth-generation, and fifth-generation languages are high-level

Machine and assembly languages are low-level

Next

p.15.16

categories of programming languages2
What is machine language?

Only language computer understands directly

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

Click to viewanimation

p.15.16 Fig. 15-18

categories of programming languages3
What is assembly language?

Instructions madeup of symbolic instruction codes

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

p.15.16 Fig. 15-19

categories of programming languages4
What is a third-generation language (3GL)?

Uses a series of English-like words to write instructions

Procedural language

Requires program instructions to tell computer whatto accomplish and how to do it

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

Click to viewanimation

p.15.18 Fig. 15-20

categories of programming languages5
What is a compiler?

Program that converts entire source program into machine language before executing it

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

p.15.18 Fig. 15-20

categories of programming languages6
What is an interpreter?

Program that translates and executes one program code statement at a time

Does not produce an object program

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

p.15.18 Fig. 15-21

categories of programming languages7
What is a fourth-generation language (4GL)?

Syntax is closer to human language than that of a 3GL

SQL and report generator are examples

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

  • Nonprocedural language
    • Programmer specifies only what the program should accomplish; it does not explain how

p.15.19 Fig. 15-22

categories of programming languages8
What is a fifth-generation language (5GL) ?

Provides visual or graphical interface for creating source code

Visual Basic.NET is an example

Categories of Programming Languages

Next

p.15.20 Fig. 15-25

object oriented program development
What is the object-oriented (OO) approach?

Programmer can package data and program (or procedure) into a single unit, called an object

Class is larger category of objects

Object-Oriented Program Development

Next

p.15.20

object oriented program development1
What is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language?

Language that uses the OO approach

OOP is event-driven

Checks for and responds to set of events

C++ is complete object-oriented language

Object-Oriented Program Development

event

OOP term for message

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click Object-Oriented Programming Languages

p.15.21

programming languages
What are the most widely used programming languages?

Hundreds of programming languages exist

Programming Languages

Java

Visual Basic

BASIC

C

C++

RPG

COBOL

Next

p.15.22

programming languages1
What is BASIC?

Designed for use as a simple, interactive problem-solving language

Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

Programming Languages

Next

p.15.22 Fig. 15-24

programming languages2
What is Visual Basic?

Windows-based application that assists programmers in developing event-driven Windows-based applications

Programming Languages

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click Visual Basic

p.15.22 Fig. 15-25

programming languages3
What is COBOL?

Procedural language with English-like statements that make it easy to read, write, and maintain

CommonBusiness-OrientedLanguage

70 billionlines ofcode exist

Programming Languages

Next

p.15.24 Fig. 15-26

programming languages4
What is C?

Powerful language designed primarily to write system software

Programming Languages

Next

p.15.25 Fig. 15-27

programming languages5
What is C++?

Object-oriented programming language

Includes all elements of C language, plus additional features for working with object-oriented concepts

Programming Languages

C#

Called C Sharp

Newer programming language that combines features of C and C++

Best suited for development of Web applications

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click C++

p.15.25

programming languages6
What is RPG?

Easy-to-write nonprocedural language used primarily in small businesses

Report Program Generator

Programming Languages

Next

p.15.26 Fig. 15-28

program development tools
What are program development tools?

User-friendly software products designed to help both program developers and nontechnical users create solutions to information requirements

Program Development Tools

application generators

RAD tools: Visual Basic, Delphi, and PowerBuilder

macros

Next

p.15.27

program development tools1
What is Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)?

Used to write own macros in Word, Excel, Access, and PowerPoint

Use objects, classes, and other object-oriented concepts

Program Development Tools

Loan Data button

Macro dialog box

VBA macro used to automate an auto loan computation

Next

Macro dialog box in Excel window guiding user through the data entry process

p.15.28 Fig. 15-31

web page program development
What Web page development tools are available?Web Page Program Development

HTML

XHTML, XML, and WML

Dynamic HTML

Scripts, Applets, Servlets, and ActiveX Controls

Java, JavaScript, VBScript, and Perl

Web page authoring software

Next

p.15.31

web page program development1
Web Page Program Development

Next

How does HTML code look?

p.15.31 Fig. 15-33

web page program development2
How are special effects and forms added to a Web page?Web Page Program Development

scriptInterpreted program that runson client

appletAlso usually runs on client,but is compiled

servletApplet that runs on server

ActiveX controlSmall program that runs on client

Next

p.15.32

web page program development3
What is the common gateway interface (CGI)?

Communications standard that defines how Web server communicates with clients

Web Page Program Development

CGI script

Program that manages sending and receiving between Web server and client

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click CGI Programs

p.15.33

web page program development4
What is dynamic HTML (DHTML)?

Allows you to include more graphical interest and interactivity on Web page

Web Page Program Development

When you point to Recreational Vehicles link, image to right is a camper and text discusses communication from your RV

When you point to Rural Regions link, image to the right is a farmer and text discusses calling from farm

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click Dynamic HTML

p.15.36 Fig. 15-39

web page program development5
What are XML, XHTML, and WML?Web Page Program Development

XML eXtensible Markup Language

Allows Web page developers to create tags that describe data passed to a client so client, rather than server, can process data

WML Wireless Markup Language

Allows Web page developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers

Uses the wireless application protocol (WAP)

XHTML eXtensible HTML

Includes features of HTML and XML

Next

Click to view Web Link

then click WML

p.15.37

web page program development6
What is the .NET Platform?

Environment for developing and running applications

Allows for creation and running of Web services

Web Page Program Development

Web services

.NET-compliant smart clients

Visual Studio .NET

Next

p.15.38

web page program development7
What is Web page authoring software?

Creates sophisticated Web pages using a tool that is much easier to use than HTML

Generates HTML

Web Page Program Development

Microsoft FrontPage

Macromedia Dreamweaver

Lotus FastSite

Macromedia Flash

Adobe GoLive

Next

p.15.38

multimedia program development
What is multimedia authoring software?

Combines text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into interactive presentation

Also called authorware

Multimedia Program Development

Toolbook

Authorware

Director

Next

p.15.38

multimedia program development1
How is multimedia authoring software used?

Creates computer-based training (CBT)

CBT software called courseware

Distance learning, distance education, or online learning

Multimedia Program Development

Next

p.15.38 Fig. 15-40