Lec 15, Ch.8, pp.291-304: Signal Timing (Objective). Be able to state the objectives of signal timing Learn by heart signal-timing related terms (very important) Understand how the yellow interval is determined
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All-red interval (clearance interval)
All signal analyses are based on through passenger cars. This way the analyses became portable to any sites. Then you need conversion of other-than-passenger cars and other-than-through vehicles. Hence we need:
Passenger car equivalent (PCE)
Turning movement factors
Peak-hour factor (PHF):A measure of the variability of demand during the peak hour. The smallest time period used for traffic analyses is 15 min.
If PHF is known, Design hourly volume (DHV) is computed by
DHV = (peak-hour volume)/PHF
Volume during peak hour
4 x Vol. During peak 15 min within peak hour
375 + 380 + 412 + 390
4 x 412
Lane Group: consisting of one or more lanes on an intersection approach and having the same green phase
Critical Lane Group: the lane group that requires the longest green time in a phase. The critical lane group determines the green time that is allocated to that phase.
Saturation flow rate: the flow rate in veh/hr that the lane group can carry if it has the green indication continuously (see eq. 8.3 for the formula used by the Highway Capacity Manual 2000.)
Once you have adjusted for truck and turn movement factors, you are ready to design phasing. One hint: if the adjusted left turn passenger car equivalent volumes is greater than 120 vph, we usually need a left-turn phase, which means that we need a left-turn bay. Up to that value, the yellow interval can provide enough time for LTs. There are a few methods to deal with left-turns. In this class you need to know only the methods shown below (i.e. protected left-turn phases) and in Example 8-5. All others will be discussed in CE562. It is a complex issue.
Critical movement: The maximum volume (vph) in a phase.
Minimize the possible conflict points by assigning the right of way to different traffic movements
X0: the min. distance from the intersection for which a vehicle traveling at the speed limit u0 during the yellow interval cannot go through the intersection without accelerating
Distance traveled during yellow interval
Where τmin: yellow interval
Xc: the distance within which a vehicle traveling at the speed limit (u0) during the yellow interval cannot stop before encroaching on the intersection.
For the dilemma zones to be eliminated, X0 = Xc:
Comfortable deceleration rate:
a = 0.27g
Solve for the yellow interval:
If the effect of grade is added:
G = grade in decimals
Optimal cycle length C0 by the Webster method:
L = Total lost time per cycle (sec), usually you lose 3 seconds per distinct phases.
Yi = Max value of the ratios of approach flows (called “critical movement”) to saturation flows for all lane groups using phase i, qij/Sj
= Number of phases
Vij = Flow on lane groups having the right of way during phase i
Sj= Saturation flow on lane group j; for a through lane, about 1900 pcphgpl
Lost time for phase i:
Total lost time:
R = Total all-red during the cycle
At an intersection where a significant number of pedestrians cross, it is necessary to provide a minimum green time that will allow the pedestrians to safely cross the intersection. After allocating green time, you must check with the minimum green time for each phase.
For WE > 10 ft
For WE≤ 10 ft
At an intersection where only a few pedestrians cross, this will be the length of green time for pedestrian actuated green.