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Exam #3 Voting

Exam #3 Voting

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Exam #3 Voting

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  1. Exam #3 Voting • Wednesday, November 28 • Friday, November 30

  2. In the Beginning…

  3. Today’s Talk Talky stuff: • In the beginning, science says… • and God said…(by the numbers…) • Do they say the same thing? Picture stuff: • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(mostly just really cool pictures)

  4. Detailed Overviewfor Today’s Talk • In the beginning, science says… • and God said…(by the numbers…) • Do they say the same thing? • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(with really cool pictures)

  5. If you are aware of the earth and sky, Ptolemy was right! Pretty much…

  6. Ptolemy (83-168AD): Greek philosopher, earth centered universe Planets are confusing “wondering stars” “Misfit” data is so IMPORTANT to engineers and scientists!

  7. 1543 ADNicolaus Copernicus moved the earth:the sun become the center of the universe.

  8. 1605 AD Kepler mathematically determined the motion of planets around the sun. (Kelper’s Laws) He also observed a super-nova

  9. 1610 ADGalileo provided observational evidence to support the Copernican model…

  10. 1910’s • The Milky Way was the Universe • The universe was “static” – not changing • Universe was eternal! • Modified relativity to match a static, eternal universe.

  11. 1920’sEdwin Hubble He was able to demonstrate that galaxies are “red shifted” RED SHIFT: Galaxies are receding from us, further away=receding faster (raisin bread)

  12. Red Shift • Light emitted from stars has specific spectra • Doppler effect: • Object moving away are “red shifted” (longer wave length) • Objects moving towards are “blue shifted”

  13. Hubble’s discoveries changed the universe! (there exists moving extragalactic nebula… The Universe is VERY BIG and Dynamic)

  14. Fr. Georges Lemaitre 1927 paper: A homogeneous universe of constant mass and growing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extragalactic nebulae AND THE UNIVERSE WENT…

  15. BANG!

  16. THE BIG BANG!

  17. Everything in the universe, matter, space, time...everything existed at an infinitesimal point The universe has been expanding into itself ever since.

  18. The “Big Bang” theory is supported by 3 significant data: • “red shift” (Hubble already demonstrated this) • Ratio of H to He in the universe (1950’s) • Cosmic background radiation (1960’s)

  19. Hydrogen to helium ratio…

  20. Ralph Alpher, Robert Herman, et al. (and others) • Run the “expanding universe” clock backwards • The universe compresses and gets very very very hot! • These conditions are replicated in particle accelerators.

  21. The Clock Ticks… 0.01 seconds after “The Bang” the universe was about 1010K (a.k.a. hot). • fermions formed, • the universe expanded and cooled, • quarks started to combine forming neutrons and protons

  22. The Race Against Time… • By 1 second after “The Bang,” formation of protons and neutrons was completed. The era of “free particles begins” and lasts for ~200 seconds. • At this point, for every neutron, there are 6 protons. • The universe is too hot for neutrons and protons to form atomic nuclei. • WARNING: • Free neutrons (neutrons not in a nuclei) decay fast (10 minute half life).

  23. …3 minutes to 20 minutes… • A critical event occurs, without it occurring soon, the universe would contain 100% hydrogen for ever! • During this time period, temperature became “just right” to allow protons and neutrons to combine as atomic nuclei (previously, too hot; then too cold) • The universe transformed from the era of free particles to the era of atomic nuclei – preserving neutrons! (otherwise, we would never exist)

  24. …3 minutes to 20 minutes… • Also, while nuclei were forming, free neutrons were decaying into protons. • During these critical minutes, the proton to neutron ratio went from 6 to 1 and became 7 to 1. • This ratio is preserved to the present day. 7:1 Pro:Neu 75%H & 25%He (by mass) 1 He 12 H

  25. 25% He and 75% H!!!! • Knowledge gained in particle accelerators and theoretical physics predicts the universe would produce 25% helium and 75% hydrogen in the first few minutes of creation. Virtually, nothing else. • Looking “back in time” reveals these proportions existed in the early universe! • This was the 2nd critical piece of “big bang” data

  26. The Big Bang Three key data: • Red Shift (Hubble, 1920’s) • 75% H, 25% He – Developed and confirmed in the 1940’s and 1950’s • Remaining: cosmic background radiation

  27. Cosmic Background Radiation • The universe was very very very hot • It has been expanding ever since….and getting colder. • We should be able to measure the temperature of the universe…

  28. Black Body Radiation

  29. The “misfit data”

  30. Persistence Pays Off… • 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson • Microwave work with Bell Labs • Observed “hiss” in their detector that they could not explain • Since it was isotropic – it seemed to be noise. • They persisted…

  31. Penzias and Wilson won the Nobel Prize in 1978 for detection of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation! • The universe is glowing at 2.73K • This was the 3rd great observation to confirm the Big Bang Theory!

  32. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Problem solved: Almost perfectly uniform…but not quite…

  33. High resolution cosmic background radiation image from WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropic Probe) Just the right amount of “inhomogeneity” Temperature variations (DTemp ~ 0.005°C) indicates “clumping” of matter which resulted in galaxy formation

  34. Detailed Overviewfor Today’s Talk • In the beginning, science says… • and God said…(by the numbers…) • Do they say the same thing? • In the beginning, the next 13.7 billion years(with really cool pictures)

  35. Numbers are sometimes “words” not always quantities!

  36. “1” An example of a “qualitative” number in English: We’re Number One! “One” is not just a quanitity

  37. Biblical numbers……what do numbers mean?…how do we know this?

  38. Some Important Biblical “Numbers” • One (1) – God is One, there is only One God • Three (3) – Holy, Trinity • Four (3 and 1, 4) - creation • Seven (6 and 1, 3 and 4) – holy creation, complete, covenant • Seven and one more (7 and 1) – new creation • Twelve (12) and one more (God) – new nation

  39. A few examples…there are many more...

  40. “3” = Holy • There were 3 divisions of the Temple in Jerusalem: the Outer Court, the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies • Jesus rose from the dead on the 3rd day. • There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity • Et cetera…

  41. “3 and 1” or “4” = creation • Lazarus spent 4 days in the tomb. Jesus, being divine, rose on the third day. • 4 rivers flowed from the garden of Eden

  42. “3 and 1” or “4” = creation • 4 women gave birth to the fathers of the 12 sons (tribes) of Israel • The 12 tribes of Israel camp divided into 4 parts when camping around the Tabernacle. These examples tie “4” and “12” together

  43. “6 and 1” or “3 and 4” or “7”= holy/complete/covenant • {6+1} God created the world in 6 days and ceased work on the 7th. • {6+1} The Tabernacle was built in 6 days and dedicated on the 7th

  44. “7 and 1 more” = new creation • The temple was first dedicated on the 7th day, it was rededicated on the 8th day • {7+1} Tabernacle: 7 sacred items. Later… Temple of Solomon: same 7, plus 1 more (8) • Jewish male infants: circumcised on the 8th day; entering into a “new covenant life” • Jesus rose from the dead on the 8th day of the week (Sunday) ushering in the New Creation.

  45. “12 and 1” = new nation • The 12 tribes of Israel camped around God (in the tabernacle). • The 12 apostles gathered around Christ.

  46. Numbers are not just literary, they transcend literature into reality…

  47. {3+1=4} There are 4 books of the Gospel, 3 are “synoptic” 1 is “spiritual.” John Matthew Mark Luke

  48. Past “3” = Holy Present Future • There are 3 Monotheistic religions that are descendents of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. • Most holy places: “3-dimensional” architecture • Judaism: the holy of holies (1 Kgs 6:20) • Islam: the Kaaba in Mecca • Christianity: • New Jerusalem (Rev 21:16)

  49. In the Beginning… Genesis provides a multitude of examples for holy and creation: 3, 4, 6+1=7

  50. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.   And God said…